Dossier on America compiled by cecil
Dossier on America - Addendum A Brief History An accounting of American violations of international norms, common morality, and human decency. In the spirit of the recent "Dossier on Iraq" published by the U.K. government, the following is a "Dossier on America" and an addendum outlining a concise history of the United States. Dossier on America email@example.com November 2002 Addendum - a Brief History of U.S. originally compiled by cecil and annoted by others since November 2002 Basic Statistics for United States Imperialism 1 - List of interventions for "regime change" 2 - List of air warfare campaigns 3 - List of client states 4 - List of states held by debt-leverage imperialism 5 - List of foreign base hosts 6 - List of murder toll 7 - List of unsavory rightists supported 8 - List of perverted international bodies 9 - List of interventions for opposing liberation 10 - List of interventions pre-1941 11 - List of covert operations 12 - List of front organizations 13 - List of low intensity conflicts 14 - List of proxy wars 15 - List of foreign policy doctrines 16 - List of propaganda campaigns Bibliography Useful Periodicals Relevant Hyperlinks Dossier on America Foreign Aid (development assistance) U.S. gives 0.2% of GNP for foreign aid, the lowest amongst all donor countries. Internationally agreed-upon target is 0.7% 17 million people, including 11 million children, die every year from easily preventable diseases and malnutrition. 800 million people are hungry or malnourished. 2 billion people live in poverty (on $2 a day), and 1 billion living in absolute poverty (on $1 a day). 2 billion people lack access to proper sanitation, and 1 billion do not have safe drinking water. 275 million children never attend or complete primary school. 870 million adults are illiterate. If the U.S., along with other rich donor countries, fulfilled their aid obligations, there would be enough to fund the U.N. Millennium Development Goals, a recently agreed upon set of U.N. targets aimed at addressing many of the above issues. Estimated cost of achieving the Millennium Goals is $100-150 billion a year. A mere 0.5% tax on America's (financial) millionaires, whose combined wealth equals $8 trillion, would be sufficient to allow America to fulfill its foreign aid obligation. War on Iraq Up to 500,000 people could die in a war with Iraq A U.S.-led war against Iraq would be a pre-emptive, large-scale invasion, without evidence of an imminent threat to the security of the United States. Source: recent report by Medact / International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (winner of the Nobel Peace Prize) Iraq Sanctions and the Gulf War Over 500,000 children (under the age of 5) have died from U.S. imposed economic sanctions on Iraq since the Gulf War Up to 1.5 million people total have died from the sanctions. 100,000-200,000 Iraqi soldiers and civilians died in the U.S.-led Gulf War. "War on Terror" War in Afghanistan 3000-5000 Afghan civilians were killed in the campaign against Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime. Guantanamo Bay prison Prisoners were held without trial or the standard safeguards of "prisoner of war" status, violating international standards for the treatment of prisoners. Civil rights and liberties in America The rights of Americans are being diminished, restricted, and violated, through mechanisms such as the Patriot Act. Over 1,000 detentions and deportations of mostly Arab men in America without any terrorism charges. Maltreatment and violations of rights (including proper access to attorneys, contact with families, etc.) during detention were reported in many cases. Other Fingerprinting and photographing of visitors from certain Arab countries. Support for a policy of covert assassinations/killings of suspected terrorists abroad. International Treaties, Conventions, and Conferences America's stance on many international treaties places it in the company of some of the world's most vile regimes and worst human rights violators. World Summit on Sustainable Development U.N. sponsored international conference aimed at addressing some of the biggest issues pertaining to the environment, poverty, and economic development. Summit ended almost in failure, with very few concrete commitments and timetables. The U.S. was "the single biggest obstacle toward achieving progress", refusing to agree to any substantive commitments and goals. International Criminal Court An historic achievement in human rights, the court's aim is to bring to justice perpetrators of crimes against humanity, genocide, and war crimes. The court aims to prevent a repeat of some of the greatest crimes and atrocities committed in the 20th century including the Holocaust, the Khmer Rouge genocide in Cambodia, and the Rwanda genocide. U.S. took unprecedented steps to undermine the new court, including planning to "unsign" the ICC treaty and pressuring other countries to sign bilateral immunity agreements. Kyoto Protocol on Global Warming The treaty is the primary international instrument aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent global warming. Global warming is expected to increase the Earth's temperature by 3C (5.4F) in the next 100 years, resulting in multiple adverse effects on the environment and human society, including widespread species loss, ecosystem damage, and flooding of populated human settlements. The U.S. is the largest greenhouse gas producer in the world. The U.S. is the only main country not to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women) The main international treaty designed to protect the rights of women worldwide, and ending the exploitation of and discrimination against women. The only countries that have signed but not ratified are the US, Afghanistan, Sao Tome and Principe. U.N. Torture Treaty protocol Attempting to block the new treaty after 10 years of efforts by the international community to implement and enforce the treaty ratified by most countries, including the U.S. Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty U.S. officially withdrew from the landmark arms treaty, December 2001. Landmine Ban Treaty Landmines maim or kill approximately 26,000 civilians every year, including 8,000 to 10,000 children. U.S. refused to sign the treaty, along with Russia, China, India, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Vietnam, Egypt, and Turkey. December 1997 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty U.S. failed to ratify the ban on nuclear testing, and continues to show opposition. The treaty is ratified by 89 countries including France, Great Britain, and Russia. Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Treaty Killed a 1994 protocol designed to strengthen the Convention by providing for on-site inspections CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species U.S. announced support for the renewal of ivory trade, November 2002. Convention on the Rights of the Child Only two countries in the world have refused to ratify this human rights treaty -- Somalia and the U.S. Child Soldiers Protocol There are 300,000 child soldiers today. The U.S. has yet to ratify the treaty. UN Agreement to Curb the International Flow of Illicit Small Arms, July 2001 Small arms and light weapons are responsible for the vast majority of casualties in modern day conflicts, of which 3 out of 4 casualties are civilians. The US was the only nation to oppose it. Durban Conference Against Racism U.S. withdrew from the international conference aimed at combating racism around the world. Other Global AIDS Crisis 3 million people die of AIDS every year. 70 million people will die of AIDS by the year 2020. The U.S. gives much less than its fair share (in relation to America's wealth) to the Global AIDS Fund, the primary international body established to fund global AIDS prevention, treatment and care projects around the world. The Global Fund is calling for $10 billion a year from donor countries. The U.S. is also trying to block the manufacturing of inexpensive generic medicines which are readily available in the developed countries, but that are far too expensive for most of the world's AIDS patients. These drugs can dramatically increase the quality of life and life expectancy of AIDS patients. -AIDS researcher Boyd E. Graves has announced the forcing of an historic court case against the US military, in which he claims proof that the virus was created under the US Special Virus Program. Documents obtained by the General Accounting Office and US Health Administration seem to support his claim. U.S. financial obligations to the United Nations U.S. is starting to slowly repay its massive debt of $1 billion. United Nations Population Fund November 2002, U.S. threatens to withdraw its support for a landmark family planning agreement that the United States helped write 8 years ago. July 2002, U.S. withheld previously approved aid of $34 million to UNFPA Embargo against Cuba in violation of repeated U.N. General Assembly resolutions U.N. General Assembly passed a resolution in November 2002, for the 11th consecutive year, calling for an end to the U.S. embargo. The resolution passed 173-3, with the U.S., Israel and the Marshall Islands opposing. The Cuban government estimates the negative effect of the blockade at more than $67 billion. One-sided support for Israel in the conflict with Palestinians Israel is in violation of several U.N. resolutions. US Nuclear Posture Review The principle of deterrence has guided international security policy since the Cold War. The U.S. is now rejecting the policy of deterrence in favor of using nuclear weapons as instruments that could be used in fighting wars. National Security Strategy 2002 The U.S. stated its aim of global military domination. Incorporates first-strike, pre-emptive war. Calls for development of new low-yield, earth-penetrating nuclear weapons Nuclear arsenal 10,000-20,000 nuclear warheads remain in the U.S. arsenal. U.S. the only country to have used a nuclear weapon. Military spending U.S. has the largest military spending budget in the world. Arms trade America is the largest supplier of the arms trade, and provider of weapons to other countries The arms trade is a major contributing factor to armed conflicts around the world. Missile Defense The U.S. is planning an expensive missile defense system that threatens to destabilize global security. The system has proven to be ineffective, and any reported successful tests utilised homing beacons to locate target warheads. America's wealth compared to world's poor Average income in America is over 100 times greater than that of the poorest 1 billion people on the planet. Domestic prison population Prison population of 2 million is the highest incarceration rate in the world. - 1. Chronological list of interventions, with the purpose of effecting "regime change," attempted or materially supported by the United States - whether primarily by means of overt force (OF), covert operation (CO), or subverted election (SE): a) OF and SE imply, necessarily, prior and continuing CO. b) OF = directly applied state terrorism by the United States repressive apparatus i.e. the Departments of War/Defense, Energy, Treasury, and State. N.B. the formation of the National Security Council (1947) and the Office of Homeland Security (2002). c) CO = reconnaissance, classical coups d'etat, legal harassment, disinformation (through media, legal, NGO, student, labor, and other front groups), bribery, sabotage, assassination, proxy warfare, running ratlines for fascist emigre groups, and assorted other clandestine activities. d) SE = a particular species of CO, comparatively non-violent, high plausible deniability, usually involves dumping tons of cash and campaign technologies into the hands of rightist groups during elections, sowing discord in leftist parties, buying up media space in order to destabilize electorates, tampering directly with ballot results, and hiring jackboots to actively threaten and brutalize voters in the last resort. NB many subverted elections are preceded by lengthy terror campaigns (e.g. Nicaragua, El Salvador, Yugoslavia, etc). Has also utilised subliminal manipulation. It should go without saying that the following entries are simplified; only the major "payoff" year is listed, where applicable. Most attempted overthrows were preceded by lengthy preparations, vast right wing conspiracies, indeed. NB that this list remains under construction; new data will be added in the next installment. [Date - place (head of targeted state/candidate in subverted election; political affiliation): outcome (means)] The * indicates that I'm not clever enough to have found the absent data yet. Apologies. "Neutralist" refers to a given regime's desire to avoid taking sides with either power bloc in the cold war. It should be readily apparent that such is an unforgivable sin against the foreign policy establishment in the United States. "Nationalist" refers to a given regime's desire to nationalize foreign-owned means of production within its national boundaries. It should be readily apparent that such is an unforgivable sin against the foreign policy establishment in the United States. 1893 - Hawaii (Liliuokalani; monarchist): success (OF) 1912 - China (Piyu; monarchist): success (OF) 1918 - Panama (Arias; center-right): success (SE) 1919 - Hungary (Kun; communist): success (CO) 1920 - USSR (Lenin; communist): failure (OF) 1924 - Honduras (Carias; nationalist): success (SE) 1934 - United States (Roosevelt; liberal): failure (CO) 1945 - Japan (Higashikuni; rightist): success (OF) 1946 - Thailand (Pridi; conservative): success (CO) 1946 - Argentina (Peron; military/centrist): failure (SE) 1947 - France (*; communist): success (SE) 1947 - Philippines (*; center-left): success (SE) 1947 - Romania (Gheorghiu-Dej; stalinist): failure (CO) 1948 - Italy (*, communist): success (SE) 1948 - Colombia (Gaitan; populist/leftist): success (SE) 1948 - Peru (Bustamante; left/centrist): success (CO) 1949 - Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): success (CO) 1949 - China (Mao; communist): failure (CO) 1950 - Albania (Hoxha; communist): failure (CO) 1951 - Bolivia (Paz; center/neutralist): success (CO) 1951 - DPRK (Kim; stalinist): failure (OF) 1951 - Poland (Cyrankiewicz; stalinist): failure (CO) 1951 - Thailand (Phibun; conservative): success (CO) 1952 - Egypt (Farouk; monarchist): success (CO) 1952 - Cuba (Prio; reform/populist): success (CO) 1952 - Lebanon (*; left/populist): success: (SE) 1953 - British Guyana (*; left/populist): success (CO) 1953 - Iran (Mossadegh; liberal nationalist): success (CO) 1953 - Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO) 1953 - Philippines (*; center-left): success (SE) 1954 - Guatemala (Arbenz; liberal nationalist): success (OF) 1955 - Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO) 1955 - India (Nehru; neutralist/socialist): failure (CO) 1955 - Argentina (Peron; military/centrist): success (CO) 1955 - China (Zhou; communist): failure (CO) 1955 - Vietnam (Ho; communist): success (SE) 1956 - Hungary (Hegedus; communist): success (CO) 1957 - Egypt (Nasser; military/nationalist): failure (CO) 1957 - Haiti (Sylvain; left/populist): success (CO) 1957 - Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): failure (CO) 1958 - Japan (*; left-center): success (SE) 1958 - Chile (*; leftists): success (SE) 1958 - Iraq (Feisal; monarchist): success (CO) 1958 - Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO) 1958 - Sudan (Sovereignty Council; nationalist): success (CO) 1958 - Lebanon (*; leftist): success (SE) 1958 - Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): failure (CO) 1958 - Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): failure (SE) 1959 - Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO) 1959 - Nepal (*; left-centrist): success (SE) 1959 - Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): failure (CO) 1960 - Ecuador (Ponce; left/populist): success (CO) 1960 - Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO) 1960 - Iraq (Qassem; rightist /militarist): failure (CO) 1960 - S. Korea (Syngman; rightist): success (CO) 1960 - Turkey (Menderes; liberal): success (CO) 1961 - Haiti (Duvalier; rightist/militarist): success (CO) 1961 - Cuba (Castro; communist): failure (CO) 1961 - Congo (Lumumba; leftist/pan-Africanist): success (CO) 1961 - Dominican Republic (Trujillo; rightwing/military): success (CO) 1962 - Brazil (Goulart; liberal/neutralist): failure (SE) 1962 - Dominican Republic (*; left/populist): success (SE) 1962 - Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): failure (CO) 1963 - Dominican Republic (Bosch; social democrat): success (CO) 1963 - Honduras (Montes; left/populist): success (CO) 1963 - Iraq (Qassem; militarist/rightist): success (CO) 1963 - S. Vietnam (Diem; rightist): success (CO) 1963 - Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): failure (CO) 1963 - Guatemala (Ygidoras; rightist/reform): success (CO) 1963 - Ecuador (Velasco; reform militarist): success (CO) 1963 - United States (Kennedy; liberal): success (CO) 1964 - Guyana (Jagan; populist/reformist): success (CO) 1964 - Bolivia (Paz; centrist/neutralist): success (CO) 1964 - Brazil (Goulart; liberal/neutralist): success (CO) 1964 - Chile (Allende; social democrat/marxist): success (SE) 1965 - Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): success (CO) 1966 - Ghana (Nkrumah; leftist/pan-Africanist): success (CO) 1966 - Bolivia (*; leftist): success (SE) 1966 - France (de Gaulle; centrist): failure (CO) 1967 - Greece (Papandreou; social democrat): success (CO) 1968 - Iraq (Arif; rightist): success (CO) 1969 - Panama (Torrijos; military/reform populist): failure (CO) 1969 - Libya (Idris; monarchist): success (CO) 1970 - Bolivia (Ovando; reform nationalist): success (CO) 1970 - Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): success (CO) 1970 - Chile (Allende; social democrat/Marxist): failure (SE) 1971 - Bolivia (Torres; nationalist/neutralist): success (CO) 1971 - Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO) 1971 - Liberia (Tubman; rightist): success (CO) 1971 - Turkey (Demirel; center-right): success (CO) 1971 - Uruguay (Frente Amplio; leftist): success (SE) 1972 - El Salvador (*; leftist): success (SE) 1972 - Australia (Whitlam; liberal/labor): failure (SE) 1973 - Chile (Allende; social democrat/Marxist): success (CO) 1974 - United States (Nixon; centrist): success (CO) 1975 - Australia (Whitlam; liberal/labor): success (CO) 1975 - Congo (Mobutu; military/rightist): failure (CO) 1975 - Bangladesh (Mujib; nationalist): success (CO) 1976 - Jamaica (Manley; social democrat): failure (SE) 1976 - Portugal (JNS; military/leftist): success (SE) 1976 - Nigeria (Mohammed; military/nationalist): success (CO) 1976 - Thailand (*; rightist): success (CO) 1976 - Uruguay (Bordaberry; center-right): success (CO) 1977 - Pakistan (Bhutto: center/nationalist): success (CO) 1978 - Dominican Republic (Balaguer; center): success (SE) 1979 - S. Korea (Park; rightist): success (CO) 1979 - Nicaragua (Sandinistas; leftist): failure (CO) 1980 - Bolivia (Siles; centrist/reform): success (CO) 1980 - Iran (Khomeini; Islamic nationalist): failure (CO) 1980 - Italy (*; leftist): success (SE) 1980 - Liberia (Tolbert; rightist): success (CO) 1980 - Jamaica (Manley; social democrat): success (SE) 1980 - Dominica (Seraphin; leftist): success (SE) 1980 - Turkey (Demirel; center-right): success (CO) 1981 - Seychelles (Renee; socialist): failure (CO) 1981 - Spain (Suarez; rightist/neutralist): failure (CO) 1981 - Panama (Torrijos; military/reform populist); success (CO) 1981 - Zambia (Kaunda; reform nationalist): failure (CO) 1982 - Mauritius (*; center-left): failure (SE) 1982 - Spain (Suarez; rightist/neutralist): success (SE) 1982 - Iran (Khomeini; Islamic nationalist): failure (CO) 1982 - Chad (Oueddei; Islamic nationalist): success (CO) 1983 - Mozambique (Machel; socialist): failure (CO) 1983 - Grenada (Bishop; socialist): success (OF) 1984 - Panama (*; reform/centrist): success (SE) 1984 - Nicaragua (Sandinistas; leftist): failure (SE) 1984 - Surinam (Bouterse; left/reformist/neutralist): success (CO) 1984 - India (Gandhi; nationalist): success (CO) 1986 - Libya (Qaddafi; Islamic nationalist): failure (OF) 1987 - Fiji (Bavrada; liberal): success (CO) 1989 - Panama (Noriega; military/reform populist): success (OF) 1990 - Haiti (Aristide; liberal reform): failure (SE) 1990 - Nicaragua (Ortega; Christian socialist): success (SE) 1991 - Albania (Alia; communist): success (SE) 1991 - Haiti (Aristide; liberal reform): success (CO) 1991 - Iraq (Hussein; military/rightist): failure (OF) 1991 - Bulgaria (BSP; communist): success (SE) 1992 - Afghanistan (Najibullah; communist): success (CO) 1993 - Somalia (Aidid; right/militarist): failure (OF) 1993 - Cambodia (Han Sen/CPP; leftist): failure (SE) 1993 - Burundi (Ndadaye; conservative): success (CO) 1993 - Azerbaijan (Elchibey; reformist): success (CO) 1994 - El Salvador (*; leftist): success (SE) 1994 - Rwanda (Habyarimana; conservative): success (CO) 1995 - Iraq (Hussein; military/rightist): failure (CO) 1994 - Ukraine (Kravchuk; center-left): success (SE) 1996 - Bosnia (Karadzic; centrist): success (CO) 1996 - Russia (Zyuganov; communist): success (SE) 1996 - Congo (Mobutu; military/rightist): success (CO) 1996 - Mongolia (*; center-left): success (SE) 1998 - Congo (Kabila; rightist/military): success (CO) 1998 - United States (Clinton; conservative): failure (CO) 1998 - Indonesia (Suharto; military/rightist): success (CO) 1999 - Yugoslavia (Milosevic; left/nationalist): success (SE) 2000 - United States (Gore; conservative): success (SE) 2000 - Ecuador (NSC; leftist): success: (CO) 2001 - Afghanistan (Omar; rightist/Islamist): success (OF) 2001 - Belarus (Lukashenko; leftist): failure (SE) 2001 - Nicaragua (Ortega; Christian socialist): success (SE) 2001 - Nepal (Birendra; nationalist/monarchist): success (CO) 2002 - Venezuela (Chavez; reform-populist): failure (CO) 2002 - Bolivia (Morales; leftist/MAS): success (SE) 2002 - Brazil (Lula; center-left): failure (SE) We should keep in mind that the goals of the imperialist in each of these instances are multiple: acquisition of access to local "markets" of all varieties; imposition of neoliberal policy; destruction of any potential alternative to the techno-fascist ruling order; provision of incentive for a sprawling parasitical and parastatal medical-intelligence- military-industrial complex (MIMIC); production of official "villains" for propaganda purposes; intimidation of non-combatants (as in the year 1945), and continuing political hegemony of the transnational elite based in DC. 2. Chronological list of US air warfare campaigns: Japan (1943-45): conventional; incendiary; nuclear China (1945-49): conventional; biological Korea (1950-53): conventional; biological; chemical; incendiary China (1951-52): conventional; biological; chemical Guatemala (1954): conventional Indonesia (1958): conventional Cuba (1959-61): conventional; (biochemical attacks in other years) Guatemala (1960): conventional Vietnam (1961-73): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster Congo (1964): conventional Peru (1965): conventional Laos (1964-73): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster Guatemala (1967-69): conventional Cambodia (1969-70): conventional; chemical; biological Cambodia (1975): conventional El Salvador (1980-89): conventional Nicaragua (1980-89): conventional Grenada (1983): conventional Lebanon (1983-4): conventional Syria (1984): conventional Libya (1986): conventional Iran (1987): conventional Panama (1989): conventional; chemical; biological Iraq (1991-2002): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU Kuwait (1991): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU Somalia (1993): conventional Bosnia (1993-95): conventional; cluster; DU Sudan (1998): conventional; biological Afghanistan (1998): conventional Yugoslavia (1999): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU Afghanistan (2001-02): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU 3. Chronological list of US client states: [under construction] 1847 - Liberia: to present 1848 - Mexico: to 1911 1893 - Hawaii: to 1959 1899 - Cuba: to 1959 1903 - Dominican Republic: to present 1903 - Honduras: to present 1912 - China: to 1949 1922 - Italy: to 1941 1928 - Portugal: to 1974 1933 - Germany: to 1941 1939 - Spain: to present 1943 - Italy: to present 1944 - Saudi Arabia: to present 1945 - France: to 1965 1945 - Japan: to present 1945 - West Germany: to 1960 1945 - South Korea: to present 1945 - Burma: to 1962 1946 - Thailand: to present 1947 - Greece: to 1964 1947 - Turkey: to present 1948 - Israel: to present 1949 - Taiwan: to present 1950 - Colombia: to present 1952 - Australia: to present 1952 - Lebanon: to present 1952 - New Zealand: to 1985 1953 - Iran: to 1979 1954 - Guatemala: to present 1954 - Pakistan: to present 1959 - Paraguay: to present 1955 - South Vietnam: to 1975 1957 - Haiti: to present 1957 - Jordan: to present 1960 - Congo/Zaire: to present 1963 - Iraq: to 1990 1964 - Bolivia: to present 1964 - Brazil: to present 1965 - Greece: to present 1965 - Peru: to present 1966 - Central African Republic: to present 1969 - Oman: to present 1970 - Egypt: to present 1970 - Cambodia: to 1979 1970 - Uruguay: to present 1975 - Morocco: to present 1976 - Portugal: to present 1978 - Kenya: to present 1978 - S. Africa: to 1990 1979 - Yemen: to present 1979 - Somalia: to 1991 1982 - Chad: to present 1982 - Mexico: to present 1984 - Brunei: to present 1988 - Burma: to present 1992 - Angola: to 2002 1993 - Azerbaijan: to present 1993 - Eritrea: to present 1993 - Nigeria: to present 1994 - Ukraine: to present 1995 - Ethiopia: to present 2000 - Kyrgyzstan: to present 2001 - Afghanistan: to present [all of Latin America (sans Mexico, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Cuba 1964-1990); a legion of others ] 4. Chronological list of states held in the manacles of debt-leverage imperialism: N.B. these states are held in the thralldom of "odious debt" imposed upon them by (typically) quasi-fascistic regimes who 1) often enough were empowered via United States state terrorism and 2) accepted the terms of United States dominated Bretton Woods restructuring programs. Many countries found themselves in dire monetary and fiscal straits in the early 1980s - after the Nixon shocks, the various oil embargoes, and the Volcker interest rate hikes. At this time of the debt crisis, the IMF and World Bank became "lenders of last resort" for regimes unable to meet balance of payments obligations to imperialist-controlled banks - but such lending comes with a cost: dismantle any and all policies that don't adhere to the mystical mantras of neoliberalism (ie such policies as protectionism, capital regulation, state industry, wage control, labor and environmental regulation, resistance to currency devaluation, autochthonous/non-export production, etc had to go); such is the nature of the structural adjustment program (SAP). Note further that these policies were the Reaganites' answer to the "Crisis of Democracy" (as defined by the geniuses in the Trilateral Commission) that was occurring on a global scale and to the relative loss of US geopolitical power in the late 1970s. In order to disrupt the G-77, UNCTAD, and other international movements modeled on the success of OPEC, the debt crisis and its neoliberal response were engineered for the sake of ushering in a new world order of managed friggin' chaos. It is good to recall that a number of countries that have refused SAP have been attacked (e.g., Serbia) and/or destabilized (e.g., Belarus). It is also prudent to realize that many an "ethnic," "religious," or otherwise vaguely described "civil" war has been caused directly by SAP (e.g., Somalia, Yugoslavia). Moreover note that the meaning of "debt crisis" is that subjugated nations that were unable to meet balance of payments obligations to imperialist-controlled banks threatened the survival of such banks, and thus this privately held debt was transferred to public institutions, thereby socializing risk while insuring the sanctity of corporate profit. (I.e., "crisis" does not here refer to those horrors being inflicted on subjugated peoples.) [Year of initial SAP implementation - nations] 1980 - Jamaica 1981 - Brazil; Mauritius; Uganda 1982 - Mexico; Ecuador; Bangladesh; Central African Republic; Argentina; Tanzania 1983 - Chile; Ghana; Kenya; Malawi; Niger; Somalia 1984 - Congo/Zaire; Mauritania; Senegal 1985 - Bolivia; Botswana; Costa Rica; Gambia; Guinea; Sao Tome 1986 - Madagascar; Nigeria; Philippines; Sierra Leone; Tunisia 1987 - Zambia; Algeria; Guinea-Bissau; Mozambique; Sudan; Yugoslavia 1988 - Equatorial Guinea; Guyana; Hungary; Pakistan; Sri Lanka 1989 - Cameroon; El Salvador; Jordan; Lesotho; Trinidad; Venezuela; Congo (RC); Togo 1990 - Colombia; Czech Republic; Nicaragua; Peru; Rwanda 1991 - Angola; Burkina Faso; Cote d'Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; India; Romania; Zimbabwe 1992 - Latvia; Reunion; Ukraine; Belarus; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Armenia; Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Moldova 1993 - Benin; Gabon; Russia; S. Africa; Surinam 1994 - Eritrea; Cambodia; Haiti; Mali 1995 - Seychelles; Swaziland; Tajikistan 1996 - Bosnia-Herzegovina; Comoros; Uruguay 1997 - Bulgaria; Djibouti; Indonesia 1998 - Mongolia; Paraguay; S. Korea; Thailand; Yemen 1999 - Kosovo 5. Rough chronological list of foreign territories "hosting" US military installations. The range of years for each group attempts to indicate when the country in question first began its role as "host" for US military facilities. NB I'm still corroborating these. [under construction] "Mahan Doctrine" group (1898-1904): Guam; Puerto Rico; Philippines; Cuba; Hawaii, Panama "Monroe Doctrine-Crisis of Capital" group (1905-1935): Antarctica; Azores; Galapagos; Haiti; Liberia; Nicaragua; Samoa "Welt Krieg" group (1939-1953): Antigua; Australia; Bahamas; Belgium; Bermuda; British Guiana; Burma; Denmark; France; Germany; Greece; Greenland; Iceland; Indonesia; Iran; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Johnston Atoll; Korea; Marshall Islands; Midway Islands; Morocco; Netherlands; Newfoundland; New Zealand; Okinawa; Portugal; Spain; St. Lucia; Taiwan; Thailand; Trinidad; Turkey; United Kingdom; Vietnam "Post-Monroe Doctrine-War on Drugs/Depopulation" group (1954-2002): Aruba, Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; DRC; Ecuador; El Salvador; Ghana; Guatemala; Honduras; Ivory Coast; Nigeria; Peru; Rwanda; Senegal "Carter Doctrine" group (1978-1981): Bahrain; Diego Garcia; Egypt; Israel; Kenya; Oman; Somalia "New World Order-Persian Gulf" group (1990-1991): Kuwait; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; UAE; Yemen "New World Order-Balkans" group (1991-2001): Albania; Bosnia; Croatia; Hungary; Kosovo; Macedonia "Afghanistan War/Caspian Basin" group (2000-2002): Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Georgia; India; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Pakistan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan 6. Chronological list of US murder toll: [under construction] The murder toll has been achieved by either direct violence (e.g. the firebombing and nuking of Japan or the firebombing of Dresden) or indirect/proxy "low intensity conflict" (e.g. Rwanda in the 90s or Nicaragua in the 80s). (I have not here accounted for the deaths attributable to SAP.) Some extremely conservative estimates Native Americans (1776-2002): 4M West Africans (1776-1865): 4M Philippines (1898-1904): 600K Germany (1945): 200K Japan (1945): 900K China (1945-60): 200K Greece (1947-49): 100K Korea (1951-53): 2M Guatemala (1954-2002): 300K Vietnam (1960-75): 2M Laos (1965-73): 500K Cambodia (1969-75): 1M Indonesia (1965): 500K Colombia (1966-2002): 500K Oman (1970): 10K Bangladesh (1971): 2M Uganda (1971-1979): 200K Chile (1973-1990): 20K East Timor (1975): 200K Angola (1975-2002): 1.5M Argentina (1976-1979): 30K Afghanistan (1978-2002): 1M El Salvador (1980-95): 100K Nicaragua (1980-90): 100K Mozambique (1981-1988): 1M Turkey (1984-2002): 50K Rwanda (1990-1996): 1M Iraq (1991-2002): 1M Somalia (1991-1994): 300K Yugoslavia (1991-2002): 300K Liberia (1992-2002): 150K Burundi (1993-1999): 200K Sudan (1998): 100K Congo (1998-2002): 3M We should also take note that the United States bears more than superficial responsibility for the Nazi Holocaust: e.g., the turning away of Jewish, Romani, and other refugees; funding the concentration camp system; underwriting the Third Reich's military; delay in opening a western front; policies of appeasement before the war; siding with the fascists during the Spanish Civil War; turning down Stalin's offer to attack Germany jointly in 1938; providing theoretical inspiration for lebensraum, final solutions, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, etc; rebuilding Germany after the war with the fascist infrastructure still intact; saving war criminals; general ideological support; and so forth. 7. Alphabetical list of rightwing dictators, reactionary movements, and other reprehensible figures empowered/materially supported by the US: [under construction] It seems as though the number one criterion for getting a job as the head of a client state is a willingness to butcher leftists. Indeed, the use of unsavory rightists by the United States began neither with the anti-Castro Cuban eemigree community, nor with the Afghan mujaheddin alumni, oh Nelly no! [the dates provided are sloppily done, I concede. At times, they are just the general duration of the given regime (e.g., Selassie). Most others are the duration of US support while the regime lasted (e.g., Hitler, Saddam Hussein, etc.)] Abacha, Sani (Nigeria: 1993-2000) Afwerki, Isaias (Eritrea: 1993-2002) Amin, Idi (Uganda: 1971-1979) Arevalo, Marco (Guatemala: 1985-1991) Bakr, Ahmad (Iraq: 1968-1979) Banzer Suarez, Hugo (Bolivia: 1971-1978) Bao Dai (Vietnam: 1949-1955) Barak, Ehud (Israel: 1999-2001) Barre, Siad (Somalia: 1979-1991) Batista, Fulgencio (Cuba: 1940-44/1952-1959) Begin, Menachem (Israel: 1977-1983) Ben-Gurion, David (Israel: 1948-1953, 1955-1963) Betancourt Bello, Rumulo (Venezuela: 1959-1964) Bokassa, Jean-Bedel (Central African Republic: 1966-1976) Bolkiah, Sir Hassanal (Brunei: 1984-2002) Botha, P.W. (South Africa: 1978-1989) Branco, Humberto (Brazil: 1964-1966) Carmona, Pedro (Venezuela: 2002) Cedras, Raoul (Haiti: 1991) Chamoun, Camille (Lebanon: 1952-1958) Chiang Kai-shek (China: 1928-1949/Taiwan: 1949-1975) Christiani, Alfredo (El Salvador: 1989-1994) Chun Doo Hwan (S. Korea: 1980-1988) Cordova, Roberto (Honduras: 1981-1985) Diaz, Porfirio (Mexico: 1876-1911) Diem, Ngo Dinh (S. Vietnam: 1955-1963) Doe, Samuel (Liberia: 1980-90) Duvalier, Francois (Haiti: 1957-1971) Duvalier, Jean Claude (Haiti: 1971-1986) Eshkol, Levi (Israel: 1963-1969) Fahd bin'Abdul-'Aziz (Saudi Arabia: 1969-2002) Feisal, King (Iraq: 1939-1958) Franco, Francisco (Spain: 1937-1975) Fujimori, Alberto (Peru: 1990-2002) Habre, Hissen (Chad: 1982-1990); Hassan II (Morocco: 1961-1999) Hitler, Adolf (Germany: 1933-1939) Hussein, King (Jordan: 1952-1999) Hussein, Saddam (Iraq: 1979-1990) Kabila, Laurent (CDR: 1997-1998) Karzai, Hamid (Afghanistan: 2001-2002) Khan, Ayub (Pakistan: 1958-1969) Koirala, B. (Nepal: 1959-1960) Lon Nol (Cambodia: 1970-1975) Marcos, Ferdinand (Philippines: 1965-1986) Martinez, Maximiliano (El Salvador: 1931-1944) Meir, Golda (Israel: 1969-1974) Meles Zenawi (Ethiopia: 1995-2002) Mobutu Sese Seko (Zaire: 1965-1997) Moi, Daniel (Kenya: 1978-2002) Montt, Efrain (Guatemala: 1982-1983) Mubarak, Hosni (Egypt: 1981-2002) Museveni, Yoweri (Uganda: 1986-2002) Musharaf, Pervez (Pakistan: 1999-2002) Mussolini, Benito (Italy: 1922-1939) Netanyahu, Benjamin (Israel: 1996-1999) Noriega, Manuel (Panama: 1983-1989) Odria, Manuel (Peru: 1948-1956) Omar, Mohamed (Afghanistan: 1996-2001) Ozal, Turgut (Turkey: 1989-1993) Pahlevi , Rezi (Iran: 1953-1979) Papadopoulos, George (Greece: 1967-1973) Park Chung Hee (S. Korea: 1960-1979) Pastrana, Andres (Colombia: 1998-2002) Peres, Shimon (Israel: 1977, 1984-1986, 1995-1996) Perez Jimenez, Marcos (Venezuela: 1952-58) Pinilla, Gustavo (Colombia: 1953-1957) Pinochet, Augusto (Chile: 1973-1990) Pol Pot (Cambodia: 1975-1998) al-Qaddafi, Muammar (Libya: 1969-1971) Rabin, Yitzhak (Israel: 1974-1977, 1992-1995) Rabuka, Sitiveni (Fiji: 1987, 1992-1999) Al Sadat, Anwar (Egypt: 1970-1981) Selassie, Halie (Ethiopia: 1941-1974) Salazar, Antonio (Portugal: 1932-1968) Saud, Abdul Aziz (Saudi Arabia: 1944-1969) Seaga, Edward (Jamaica: 1980-1989) Shamir, Yitzhak (Israel: 1983-1984; 1986-1992) Sharett, Moshe (Israel: 1953-1955) Sharon, Ariel (Israel: 2001-2002) Smith, Ian (Rhodesia: 1965-1979) Somoza Sr., Anastasio (Nicaragua: 1936-1956) Somoza Jr., Anastasio (Nicaragua: 1963-1979) Stroessner, Alfredo (Paraguay: 1954-1989) Suharto, General (Indonesia: 1966-1999) Syngman Rhee (S. Korea: 1948-1960) Tolbert, William (Liberia: 1971-1980) Trujillo, Rafael (Dominican Republic: 1930-1960) Tubman, William (Liberia: 1944-1971) Uribe, Alvaro (Colombia: 2002) Videla, Jorge (Argentina: 1976-1981) Yeltsin, Boris (Russia: 1991-1999) Zaim, Hosni (Syria: 1949) Zia Ul-Haq, Mohammed (Pakistan: 1977-1988) other nasty nasties: RPF (contra French client Rwanda); SPLA contra Islamist Sudan, (a French client); clients in Cameroon, Congo, Ivory Coast, Togo and Benin, after subverted elections (contra French proxies); AFDL (Kabila); Dalai Lama (Tibet); bin Laden's al Qaida; Savimbi's UNITA Nazi war criminals and collaborators knowingly rescued in the years after WW2 by US intelligence for use as covert assets against the USSR: R. Gehlen; O. Skorzeny; A. Brunner; O. von Bolschwing; W. von Braun; M. Lebed; A. Vlasov; I. Docheff; K. Dragonovich; I. Bogolepov; C. Bolydreff; A. Berzins; H. Herwarth; K. Barbie; I. Demjanjuk; W. Dornberger; V. Hazners; B. Maikovskis; E. Laipenieks; N. Nazarenko; L. Pasztor; R. Ostrowsky; L. Kairys; P. Shandruk; T. Soobzokov; S. Stankievich; and literally thousands of others. 8. List of "international" bodies designed/employed/perverted by the United States: [under construction] UN/ OECD/ WHO G8/IMF/WB/WTO/NAFTA/MAI/FTAA/Colombo Plan NATO/SEATO/CTO/ANZUS/OAS 9. Chronological list of interventions by the United States, with the purpose of opposing (or aiding opposition to) popular resistance movements - whether by means of overt force (OF) or covert operation (CO): [Date - place (targeted movement): outcome (means)] 1776-1865 - United States (numerous slave rebellions): success (OF) 1782-1787 - United States (Wyoming Valley): success (OF) 1786-1787 - United States (Shay's Rebellion): success (OF) 1790-1795 - United States (Ohio Valley tribes): success (OF) 1794-1794 - United States (Whiskey Rebellion): success (OF) 1798-1800 - United States (Alien & Sedition trials): success (CO) 1799-1799 - United States (Fries' Rebellion): success (OF) 1805-1806 - United States (Boston union "conspiracy"): success (CO) 1806-1807 - United States (Burr's Insurrection): success (OF) 1810-1821 - Spanish Florida (Africans, Natives, etc): success (OF) 1811-1811 - United States (Tecumseh's Confederacy): success (albeit a permanently cursed "success") (OF) 1813-1814 - United States (Creeks): success (OF) 1822-1822 - United States (Vesey's Rebellion): success (CO) 1823-1824 - United States (Arikara): success (OF) 1826-1827 - United States (Philadelphia union "conspiracy"): success (CO) 1827-1827 - United States (Fever River & Winnebago): success (OF) 1831-1831 - United States (Turner's rebellion): success (OF) 1831-1831 - United States (Sac & Fox): success (OF) 1832-1832 - United States (Black Hawks): success (OF) 1833-1834 - Argentina (rebellion): success (OF) 1835-1835 - United States (Murrel's Uprising): success (CO) 1835-1836 - Peru (rebellion): success (OF) 1835-1842 - United States (Seminoles): success (OF) 1836-1837 - United States (Sabine, Osage): success (OF) 1836-1844 - Mexico (anti-Texans, Natives, etc): success (OF) 1837-1838 - United States (massive strikes): success (OF) 1838-1839 - United States (Mormons): success (OF) 1842-1842 - United States (Dorr's Rebellion): success (OF) 1847-1855 - United States (Cayuse): success (OF) 1850-1851 - United States (Mariposa tribes): success (OF) 1851-1859 - United States (Washington tribes): success (OF) 1852-1853 - Argentina (rebellion in Buenos Aires): success (OF 1854-1856 - China (rebellion): success (OF) 1855-1856 - United States (Sioux): success (OF) 1855-1858 - United States (Seminoles): success (OF) 1855-1858 - Nicaragua (Walker's invasion): success (OF) 1855-1860 - United States ("Bleeding Kansas"): success (OF) 1857-1857 - United States (Cheyenne): success (OF) 1857-1858 - United States (Mormons): success (OF) 1858-1858 - Uruguay (rebellion in Montevideo): success (OF) 1858-1859 - United States (Comanche): success (OF) 1859-1859 - United States (Brownists at Harper's Ferry): success (OF) 1860-1860 - Angola (rebellion in Kissembo): success (OF) 1860-1861 - Colombia (rebellion): success (OF) 1861-1865 - United States (confederate rebellion): success (OF) 1861-1865 - United States (Navajo): success (OF) 1861-1886 - United States (Apache): success (OF) 1862-1864 - United States (Sioux): success (OF) 1863-1863 - United States (draft riots): success (OF) 1863-1864 - United States (massive strikes): success (OF) 1864-1864 - United States (Sand Hill Massacre): success (OF) 1865-1865 - Panama (rebellion): success (OF) 1865-1867 - United States (Sioux): success (OF) 1867-1867 - Formosa (rebellion): success (OF) 1867-1875 - United States (Comanche): success (OF) 1868-1868 - Japan (rebellion): success (OF)] 1868-1868 - United States (Washita/South Plains tribes): success (OF) 1868-1868 - Uruguay (rebellion): success (OF) 1871-1871 - Korea (rebellion): success (OF) 1872-1873 - United States (Modocs): success (OF) 1874-1875 - United States (Red River War): success (OF) 1874-1874 - United States (Kiowa): success (OF) 1876-1877 - United States (Sioux/Cheyenne): success (OF) 1877-1877 - United States (St Louis general strike, others): success (OF) 1877-1877 - United States (Nez Perce): success (OF) 1878-1878 - United States (Idaho tribes): success (OF) 1878-1879 - United States (Cheyenne): success (OF) 1879-1880 - United States (Ute): success (OF) 1885-1885 - United States (New York textile strikes): failure (OF) 1886-1886 - United States (massive strikes, Haymarket): success (OF) 1888-1888 - Korea (rebellion): success (OF) 1888-1893 - Hawaii (rebellion contra Dole): success (OF) 1888-1889 - Samoa (rebellion): success (OF) 1890-1891 - United States (Pine Ridge, Wounded Knee): success (OF) 1891-1891 - Haiti (Navassa uprising): success (OF) 1891-1892 - Chile (rebellion): success (OF) 1892-1892 - United States (Idaho miners): success (OF) 1893-1894 - United States (massive strikes): success (OF) 1894-1894 - Nicaragua (Bluefields unrest): success (OF) 1894-1894 - United States (Chicago rail/Pullman strikes): success (OF) 1894-1895 - Brazil (rebellion): success (OF) 1894-1896 - Korea (post Sino-Japanese war rebellion): success (OF) 1896-1899 - Nicaragua (rebellions): success (OF) 1898-1900 - United States (Chippewa at Leech Lake): success (OF) 1898-1902 - Philippines (nationalist resistance): success (OF) 1899-1899 - Samoa (Mataafa): success (OF) 1899-1901 - United States (Idaho miners): success (OF) 1900-1941 - China (Boxers, communists, etc): success (OF) 1901-1901 - United States (Creek uprising): success (OF) 1901-1901 - United States (Steel strikes): failure (OF) 1901-1902 - Colombia (rebellions): success (OF) 1901-1913 - Philippines (Moslem Moro rebellion): success (OF) 1903-1903 - Honduras (rebellion): success (OF) 1903-1904 - Dominican Republic (rebellion): success (OF) 1904-1909 - United States (Kentucky tobacco farmers): success (OF) 1906-1909 - Cuba (rebellion): success (OF) 1907-1911 - Honduras (leftists, Bonilla): success (OF) 1909-1911 - United States (NY/Triangle textile strikes): failure (OF) 1911-1912 - China (rebellions): success (OF) 1912-1925 - Nicaragua (leftists): success (OF) 1913-1919 - Mexico (various rebellions, Villa): failure (OF) 1914-1914 - United States (Ludlow Massacre): success (OF) 1914-1924 - Dominican Republic (various factions): success (OF) 1915-1934 - Haiti (Sam, etc): success (OF) 1916-1917 - United States (Arizona miners strike): success (OF) 1917-1918 - United States (IWW): success (CO) 1917-1919 - United States (Espionage Act trials): success (CO) 1917-1922 - Cuba (rebellions): success (OF) 1918-1920 - Panama (strikes, election protests, etc): success (OF) 1919-1919 - Honduras (rebellion): success (OF) 1919-1920 - United States (Palmer Raids): success (CO) 1919-1920 - Costa Rica (Tinoco, etc): success (CO) 1919-1920 - United States (Great Steel Strike, others): success (OF) 1920-1921 - United States (West Virginian miners): success (OF) 1920-1928 - United States (prison rebellions): success (OF) 1920-1920 - Guatemala (Unionists): success (OF) 1922-1922 - Turkey (Nationalists): success (OF) 1922-1923 - United States (massive strikes): success (OF) 1924-1925 - Honduras (rebellions): success (OF) 1925-1925 - Panama (general strike): success (OF) 1926-1933 - Nicaragua (Sandino, others): success (OF) 1931-1932 - El Salvador (Marti): success (OF) 1932-1932 - United States (DC Bonus Strikers): success (OF) 1933-1933 - Cuba (rebellion): success (OF) 1935-1935 - Philippines (Sakdal Uprising): success (OF) 1938-1957 - United States (leftists: HUAC, McCarthyism): success (CO) 1943-1946 - United States (unprecedented strikes): success (OF) 1944-1951 - Greece (EAM/ELAS/KKE): success (CO) 1945-1949 - China (maoism): failure (OF) 1945-1954 - Vietnam (Viet Minh): failure (CO) 1946-1947 - S. Korea (mass resistance to US military rule): success (OF) 1947-1950 - Turkey (TKP): success (CO) 1948-1948 - S. Korea (democratic resistance): success (OF) 1948-1954 - Philippines (Huks): success (CO) 1950-1951 - United States (Puerto Rican independence): success (OF) 1950-1953 - United States (many prison rebellions): success (OF) 1952-1975 - Japan (general anti-US protests): success (OF) 1952-1957 - Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF) 1953-1963 - Syria (ASRP/Baathists): failure (CO) 1954-1962 - Algeria (FLN): failure (CO) 1956-1971 - United States (Cointelpro-CPUSA): success (CO) 1956-1975 - South Vietnam (NLF): failure (OF) 1957-1959 - Lebanon (leftists): success (OF) 1957-1958 - Jordan (leftists/anti-monarchists): success (OF) 1959-1960 - Haiti (rebels contra Duvalier): success (OF) 1960-1971 - United States (Cointelpro-Puertorriquenos): success (CO) 1960-1966 - Peru (leftist rebels/PCP): success (CO) 1960-1963 - Venezuela (FALN; leftist): success (CO) 1962-1969 - United States (Cointelpro-SWP): success (CO) 1963-1965 - El Salvador (various rebels): success (CO) 1964-1964 - Panama (Canal activists): success (OF) 1965-1968 - United States (mass urban race riots): failure (OF) 1965-1966 - Dominican Republic (Bosch supporters): success (OF) 1965-1966 - Indonesia (PKI): success (CO) 1965-2000 - East Timor (independence movement): failure (CO) 1966-1973 - United States (massive antiwar protest): failure (OF) 1966-2002 - Colombia (FARC/ELN): success (CO) 1966-1988 - Namibia (SWAPO): failure (CO) 1966-1967 - Guatemala (leftists): success (CO) 1967-1971 - United States (Cointelpro-SCLC, BPP, CORE, etc): failure (CO) 1967-1967 - United States (Detroit black workers): success (OF) 1967-1971 - Uruguay (Tupamaros): success (CO) 1967-1968 - United States (San Quentin prison rebellions): success (OF) 1967-1969 - Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF) 1968-1969 - United States (MLK assassination riots): success (OF) 1968-1971 - United States (Cointelpro-SDS): success (CO) 1969-1970 - United States (IAT at Alcatraz): success (OF) 1969-1970 - Oman (Dhufar Rebellion): success (CO) 1969-2002 - Philippines (maoism): success (CO) 1970-1970 - United States (several prison rebellions): success (OF) 1970-1970 - United States (campus uprisings: KSU, etc): success (OF) 1970-1970 - Jordan (Palestinian resistance): success (CO) 1970-1972 - Bangladesh (independence movement): failure (CO) 1970-1972 - Trinidad (rebellions): success (OF) 1971-1971 - United States (post-Jackson murder prison riots): success (OF) 1972-1973 - Nicaragua (Sandinistas): success (OF) 1973-1973 - United States (Lakota at Wounded Knee): success (OF) 1973-1976 - United States (Cointelpro-AIM): success (CO) 1974-2002 - Israel (PLO): success (CO) 1974-2002 - Turkey (PKK): success (CO) 1977-1978 - United States (coal miners): failure (OF) 1980-2002 - Peru (MRTA/Shining Path): success (CO) 1981-1992 - El Salvador (FMLN, etc): success (CO) 1981-1990 - Honduras (PCH, FPR, etc): success (CO) 1981-1981 - United States (air controllers strike): success (OF) 1982-1983 - Morocco (MOL): success (CO) 1982-1984 - Lebanon (leftist & Moslem resistance): failure (OF) 1986-1990 - Bolivia (peasants): success (OF) 1989-1989 - St. Croix (Black rebellion): success (OF) 1992-1992 - United States (LA uprising): success (OF) 1994-2002 - Mexico (EZLN/Zapatistas): success (CO) 1995-1998 - Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF) 1996-2002 - Nepal (CPN): success (CO) 10. US as "isolationist" pre-1941? hahahahaha! DoS-confessed conflicts & interventions up to WW2 (NB other unconfessed exist - tracking them is the tricky part). Contra major European powers France: 1798-1800, 1806-10 Germany: 1917-18, 1941-45 Great Britain: 1775-1783, 1812-1815 Spain [and colonies]: 1806-10, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1816-18, 1898 USSR: 1918-22 Contra minor powers, colonies, marginal states, non-European major powers Abyssina: 1903-4 "Africa" [west coast]: 1820-23, 1843 [allegedly contra "slave trade"] Amelia Is.: 1812, 1817 Algeria/Algiers: 1815 [the 2nd Barbary War] Angola: 1860 Argentina: 1833, 1852-3, 1890 "Bering Sea": 1891 [contra alleged "seal poaching" LOL] Brazil: 1894 "Caribbean": 1814-25 [contra alleged "piracy"] Chile: 1891 China: 1843, 1854-6, 1859, 1866, 1894-5, 1898-9, 1900, 1911, 1912-41 Colombia: 1868, 1873, 1895, 1902 Costa Rica: 1921 Cuba: 1822-25, 1906-9, 1912, 1917-22, 1933 Dominican Republic: 1799, 1903-4, 1914 Egypt: 1882 Falklands: 1831-2 Fiji: 1840, 1855, 1858 [the most curious in the bunch, IMHO] Formosa: 1867 Greece: 1827 Greenland: 1941 ["defense" agreement] Guatemala: 1920 Haiti: 1888, 1891, 1914, 1915-34 Hawaii: 1870, 1874, 1893 Honduras: 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924-5 Iceland: 1941 ["defense" agreement] Italy: 1941-43 Japan: 1853-4, 1863, 1868, 1941-45 Johanna Is.: 1851 Kingsmills Is.: 1841 Korea: 1871, 1888, 1889, 1894-6, 1904-5 Libya/Tripoli: 1801-1805, 1815 [the 1st and 3rd Barbary Wars] Marquesa Is.: 1813-4 Mexico: 1806, 1836, 1842, 1844, 1846-8, 1859, 1866, 1870, 1873, 1876, 1913-9 Morocco: 1904 Nicaragua: 1853, 1854, 1857, 1869, 1894, 1896, 1898-9, 1910, 1912-25, 1926-33 Panama: [Colo] 1856, 1860, 1865, 1885, 1901, [indep] 1903-14, 1918-21, 1925 Paraguay: 1859 Peru: 1835-6 Philippines: 1899-1901 Puerto Rico: 1824, 1899 Samoa: 1841, 1888-9, 1899 Smyrna: 1849 Sumatra: 1832, 1838-9 Surinam: 1941 Turkey: 1851, 1858-9, 1912, 1917-8, 1919, 1922 Uruguay: 1855, 1858, 1868 Yugoslavia: 1919 Scanning the official public acknowledgment list here, we clearly see that the US had extreme paranoia about China, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama: Open Doors, "uncooperative" neighbors, and two potential canal zones. Also, check the rationale in the official Defense Dept. record for each of the above conflict dates. Many, many times, we have the "to protect US interests [or "nationals"] during a crisis" as the proposed justification. Caveat lector. 11. Noteworthy Covert Operations conducted by the United States. We should keep in mind that the dates given are the confessed dates of operation. In no way does this account for programs that continued to run after they were officially terminated, nor does it reckon with the same practices under different names - or no names at all. It should go without saying that this isn't a complete listing. Overcast (1945-46): OSS rescuing Nazi military scientists for US use Crowcass: 1945-48): locating thousands of Nazis for later use Paperclip (1946-1954): continuation and expansion of Overcast Mockingbird (1947-2002): CIA control of mass media Bloodstone (1948-50): infiltrating fascists into the USSR Gladio (1949-90): terrorist actions to discredit the left; assassination, etc. Ajax (1950-1953): supporting the Shah of Iran and overthrowing Mossadegh MK-Ultra (1953-1963): CIA experiments with LSD, etc on non-volunteers Cointelpro (1956-71): FBI destabilization of CP, AIM, SDS, civil rights, etc. Celeste (1960-61): CIA assassination of UN secretary-general Dag Hammarskjold Mongoose (1961-63): assassinating Castro Northwoods (1962-2002): DoD prepares faked ‚?ķterror attacks‚?ý qua casus belli SHAD (1962-1973): DoD performs biochemical weaponry tests on US citizens Merrimac (1967-68): CIA surveillance of DC Phoenix (1967-1971): mass agitprop and assassination program in Vietnam Resistance (1967-68): CIA spying on US student movements Chaos (1968-1974): CIA domestic espionage on students, activists, etc Garden Plot (1968-2002): DoD plans for mass repression/concentration camps Tailwind (1970): killing US defectors in Vietnam with sarin gas Grillflame (1971-1991): CIA "ESP troopers" i.e. over-horizon radar Echelon (1972-2002): NSA electronic surveillance of all communication Watch Tower (1974-1976): CIA builds an ‚?ķair corridor‚?ý for narcotics traffic in Colombia Condor (1975-1977): Security arrangement in S. America to kill leftists George Orwell (1978-1990): CIA surveillance of US politicians, etc, to protect narcotics traffic Cyclone (1979-2002): funding violent Islamic fundamentalist groups Promis (1981-2002): CIA, etc surveillance of financial transactions JCET (1991-2002): "foreign internal defense" training programs Roots (1993-1999): CIA sows fascistic propaganda in Yugoslavia Storm (1995): ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Krajina Carnivore (1999-2002): FBI surveillance of www posts, listservs, etc Magic Lantern (2001-2002): FBI surveillance of PC keystrokes. Tips (2002-): DoJ civilian informants and denunciations 12. Prominent Front Organizations used to advance US imperialist interests: Adolph Coors Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund AFL-CIO: CIA controlled labor organization African American Institute: CIA front group American Council for International Commission of Jurists: CIA front American Enterprise Foundation: rightist think-tank American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees: CIA front American Foreign Policy Council: rightist think-tank American Friends of the Middle East: CIA front group American Newspaper Guild: CIA front group American Society of African Culture: CIA front group Brookings Institution: rightist think-tank CANF: anti-Castro lobbyist Cato Institute: rightist think-tank Carnegie Endowment: rightist think-tank Center for Security Policy: rightist think-tank Center for Strategic and International Studies: rightist think-tank Competitive Enterprise Institute: rightist think-tank Ethics and Public Policy Center: rightist think-tank Ford Foundation: CIA front group Freedom Forum: rightist think-tank Fund for International Social and Economic Education: CIA front group Heritage Foundation: rightist think-tank Hoover Institution: rightist think-tank Hudson Institute: rightist think-tank Institute for Historical Review: neo-fascist lobbyist; Holocaust denier Institute for International Economics: rightist think-tank Institute for International Labor Research: CIA front group International Development Foundation: CIA front group International Institute for Strategic Studies: rightist think-tank John Birch Society: virulent anti-communist publicist John M. Olin Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund Koch Family Foundations: rightist propaganda slush-fund Liberty Lobby: neo-fascist agitprop Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund Manhattan Institute: rightist think-tank National Education Association: CIA front group National Endowment for Democracy: CIA front group National Student Association: CIA front group Progress and Freedom Foundation: rightist think-tank Progressive Policy Institute: rightist think-tank RAND Corporation: rightist think-tank Reason Foundation: rightist think-tank Scaife Family Foundations: rightist propaganda slush-fund Smith Richardson Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund Soros Foundation: CIA front group USAID: official humanitarian front used to control food politics USIA: primary disseminator of official "white propaganda" Voice of America: CIA-controlled radio 13. "Low intensity wars" conducted by the United States and its proxies ("medium intensity warfare" = direct and usually acknowledged involvement of US military apparatus; "high intensity warfare" = Dr. Strangelove stuff: "nuclear combat toe-to-toe with the Russkies," &c). The primary goal of low intensity conflict is to use proxies, intelligence, and special forces to destabilize a region and its official government. The purpose of destabilization is to achieve 1) access to resources amidst the chaos, 2) delegitimation of an "enemy" political/economic system, 3) influence over specific local groups, and 4) depopulation of regions inhabited by "untermenschen." All leftists should learn about low intensity warfare; it is by far and away >one of the most disgusting and useful tools in the imperialist repertoire. Don't let the words "low intensity" trick you: rivers are dammed with corpses and the fields are sown with the blood of the targeted nation. 1950s: Poland; Ukraine; Russia, China; Thailand; Burma 1960s: Congo; Vietnam; Laos; Cambodia; Thailand; Burma 1970s: Congo; Vietnam; Laos; Cambodia 1980s: Congo; Cambodia; Nicaragua; Afghanistan; Mozambique; Angola; Ethiopia; Yemen; Western Sahara 1990s: Congo; Cambodia; Afghanistan; Yugoslavia; Nigeria; Sierra Leone; Guinea-Bissau; Colombia; Liberia; Sudan; Central African Republic; Equatorial Guinea 14. Proxy Wars fought by the United States, which typically involves the use of clients, dupes, mercenaries, unofficial "volunteers," and official, though disavowable, special forces. [under construction] contra Soviet Union: stock-in-trade Cold War superpower jousting contra France: after the Soviet Union ended all activities in Africa, the US began its bid to force French proxies out of North Africa.
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