Dossier on America
compiled by cecil



  

Dossier on America - Addendum
A Brief History

An accounting of American violations of international norms,
common morality, and human decency.

In the spirit of the recent "Dossier on Iraq" published by the
U.K. government, the following is a "Dossier on America" and
an addendum outlining a concise history of the United States.


Dossier on America

dk@earthweb.org
November 2002


Addendum - a Brief History of U.S.

originally compiled by cecil and annoted by others since
November 2002


Basic Statistics for United States Imperialism

1 - List of interventions for "regime change"
2 - List of air warfare campaigns
3 - List of client states
4 - List of states held by debt-leverage imperialism
5 - List of foreign base hosts
6 - List of murder toll
7 - List of unsavory rightists supported
8 - List of perverted international bodies
9 - List of interventions for opposing liberation
10 - List of interventions pre-1941
11 - List of covert operations
12 - List of front organizations
13 - List of low intensity conflicts
14 - List of proxy wars
15 - List of foreign policy doctrines
16 - List of propaganda campaigns

Bibliography
Useful Periodicals
Relevant Hyperlinks



Dossier on America

Foreign Aid (development assistance)

U.S. gives 0.2% of GNP for foreign aid, the lowest amongst
all donor countries.

Internationally agreed-upon target is 0.7%

17 million people, including 11 million children, die every year
from easily preventable diseases and malnutrition.

800 million people are hungry or malnourished.
2 billion people live in poverty (on $2 a day), and 1 billion
living in absolute poverty (on $1 a day).

2 billion people lack access to proper sanitation, and 1
billion do not have safe drinking water.

275 million children never attend or complete primary
school. 870 million adults are illiterate.

If the U.S., along with other rich donor countries,
fulfilled their aid obligations, there would be enough to fund the U.N.
Millennium Development Goals, a recently agreed upon set of U.N. targets
aimed at addressing many of the above issues.

Estimated cost of achieving the Millennium Goals is
$100-150 billion a year.

A mere 0.5% tax on America's (financial) millionaires,
whose combined wealth equals $8 trillion, would be
sufficient to allow America to fulfill its foreign aid obligation.

War on Iraq

Up to 500,000 people could die in a war with Iraq
A U.S.-led war against Iraq would be a pre-emptive, large-scale
invasion, without evidence of an imminent threat to
the security of the United States.
Source: recent report by Medact / International
Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (winner of the
Nobel Peace Prize)

Iraq Sanctions and the Gulf War

Over 500,000 children (under the age of 5) have died from
U.S. imposed economic sanctions on Iraq since the Gulf War

Up to 1.5 million people total have died from the sanctions.
100,000-200,000 Iraqi soldiers and civilians died in the U.S.-led Gulf War.

"War on Terror"

War in Afghanistan

3000-5000 Afghan civilians were killed in the campaign
against Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime.

Guantanamo Bay prison

Prisoners were held without trial or the standard safeguards
of "prisoner of war" status, violating international standards for the
treatment of prisoners.

Civil rights and liberties in America

The rights of Americans are being diminished,
restricted, and violated, through mechanisms such as the Patriot Act.

Over 1,000 detentions and deportations of mostly
Arab men in America without any terrorism charges.
Maltreatment and violations of rights (including proper
access to attorneys, contact with families, etc.) during
detention were reported in many cases.

Other

Fingerprinting and photographing of visitors from
certain Arab countries.

Support for a policy of covert assassinations/killings
of suspected terrorists abroad.

International Treaties, Conventions, and Conferences

America's stance on many international treaties places
it in the company of some of the world's most vile regimes
and worst human rights violators.

World Summit on Sustainable Development
U.N. sponsored international conference aimed at addressing
some of the biggest issues pertaining to the
environment, poverty, and economic development.
Summit ended almost in failure, with very few concrete
commitments and timetables.
The U.S. was "the single biggest obstacle toward achieving
progress", refusing to agree to any substantive commitments and goals.

International Criminal Court
An historic achievement in human rights, the court's aim is
to bring to justice perpetrators of crimes against humanity,
genocide, and war crimes. The court aims to prevent a
repeat of some of the greatest crimes and atrocities
committed in the 20th century including the Holocaust,
the Khmer Rouge genocide in Cambodia, and the Rwanda
genocide.
U.S. took unprecedented steps to undermine the new
court, including planning to "unsign" the ICC treaty
and pressuring other countries to sign bilateral immunity
agreements.

Kyoto Protocol on Global Warming
The treaty is the primary international instrument aimed
at curbing greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent
global warming. Global warming is expected to increase
the Earth's temperature by 3C (5.4F) in the next 100
years, resulting in multiple adverse effects on the environment
and human society, including widespread species loss,
ecosystem damage, and flooding of populated human settlements.
The U.S. is the largest greenhouse gas producer in the world.
The U.S. is the only main country not to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.

CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women)
The main international treaty designed to protect the
rights of women worldwide, and ending the exploitation
of and discrimination against women.
The only countries that have signed but not ratified are
the US, Afghanistan, Sao Tome and Principe.

U.N. Torture Treaty protocol
Attempting to block the new treaty after 10 years of
efforts by the international community to implement and
enforce the treaty ratified by most countries, including the U.S.

Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty
U.S. officially withdrew from the landmark arms treaty, December 2001.

Landmine Ban Treaty
Landmines maim or kill approximately 26,000 civilians every
year, including 8,000 to 10,000 children.
U.S. refused to sign the treaty, along with Russia, China,
India, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Vietnam, Egypt, and Turkey. December 1997

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
U.S. failed to ratify the ban on nuclear testing, and continues
to show opposition.
The treaty is ratified by 89 countries including France, Great
Britain, and Russia.

Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Treaty
Killed a 1994 protocol designed to strengthen the Convention
by providing for on-site inspections

CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
U.S. announced support for the renewal of ivory trade, November 2002.

Convention on the Rights of the Child
Only two countries in the world have refused to ratify this
human rights treaty -- Somalia and the U.S.

Child Soldiers Protocol
There are 300,000 child soldiers today.
The U.S. has yet to ratify the treaty.

UN Agreement to Curb the International Flow of Illicit Small
Arms, July 2001
Small arms and light weapons are responsible for the vast
majority of casualties in modern day conflicts, of which 3
out of 4 casualties are civilians.
The US was the only nation to oppose it.

Durban Conference Against Racism
U.S. withdrew from the international conference aimed at
combating racism around the world.

Other

Global AIDS Crisis
3 million people die of AIDS every year. 70 million people will
die of AIDS by the year 2020.
The U.S. gives much less than its fair share (in relation to
America's wealth) to the Global AIDS Fund, the primary international
body established to fund global AIDS prevention, treatment and
care projects around the world. The Global Fund is calling for
$10 billion a year from donor countries.
The U.S. is also trying to block the manufacturing of
inexpensive generic medicines which are readily available in
the developed countries, but that are far too expensive for
most of the world's AIDS patients. These drugs can dramatically
increase the quality of life and life expectancy of AIDS patients.

-AIDS researcher Boyd E. Graves has announced the
forcing of an historic court case against the US military,
in which he claims proof that the virus was created under
the US Special Virus Program. Documents obtained by the
General Accounting Office and US Health Administration
seem to support his claim.

U.S. financial obligations to the United Nations
U.S. is starting to slowly repay its massive debt of $1 billion.

United Nations Population Fund
November 2002, U.S. threatens to withdraw its support
for a landmark family planning agreement that the United
States helped write 8 years ago.
July 2002, U.S. withheld previously approved aid of $34
million to UNFPA

Embargo against Cuba in violation of repeated U.N. General
Assembly resolutions
U.N. General Assembly passed a resolution in November
2002, for the 11th consecutive year, calling for an end to
the U.S. embargo.
The resolution passed 173-3, with the U.S., Israel and the
 Marshall Islands opposing.
The Cuban government estimates the negative effect of
 the blockade at more than $67 billion.

One-sided support for Israel in the conflict with Palestinians
Israel is in violation of several U.N. resolutions.

US Nuclear Posture Review
The principle of deterrence has guided international security
policy since the Cold War.
The U.S. is now rejecting the policy of deterrence in favor of
using nuclear weapons as instruments that could be used in
fighting wars.

National Security Strategy 2002

The U.S. stated its aim of global military domination.

Incorporates first-strike, pre-emptive war.

Calls for development of new low-yield, earth-penetrating nuclear weapons

Nuclear arsenal
10,000-20,000 nuclear warheads remain in the U.S. arsenal.
U.S. the only country to have used a nuclear weapon.

Military spending
U.S. has the largest military spending budget in the world.

Arms trade
America is the largest supplier of the arms trade, and provider
of weapons to other countries
The arms trade is a major contributing factor to armed
conflicts around the world.

Missile Defense
The U.S. is planning an expensive missile defense system
that threatens to destabilize global security. The system
has proven to be ineffective, and any reported successful
tests utilised homing beacons to locate target warheads.

America's wealth compared to world's poor
Average income in America is over 100 times greater than
that of the poorest 1 billion people on the planet.

Domestic prison population
Prison population of 2 million is the highest incarceration rate in the world.

-
1. Chronological list of interventions, with the purpose of
effecting "regime change," attempted or materially supported by
the United States - whether primarily by means of overt force
(OF), covert operation (CO), or subverted election (SE):


a) OF and SE imply, necessarily, prior and continuing CO.


b) OF = directly applied state terrorism by the United States
repressive apparatus i.e. the Departments of War/Defense, Energy,
Treasury, and State. N.B. the formation of the National Security
Council (1947) and the Office of Homeland Security (2002).


c) CO = reconnaissance, classical coups d'etat, legal harassment,
 disinformation (through media, legal, NGO, student, labor, and
other front groups), bribery, sabotage, assassination, proxy warfare,
running ratlines for fascist emigre groups, and assorted other
clandestine activities.


d) SE = a particular species of CO, comparatively non-violent,
 high plausible deniability, usually involves dumping tons of cash
and campaign technologies into the hands of rightist groups during
elections, sowing discord in leftist parties, buying up media space in
order to destabilize electorates, tampering directly with ballot results,
and hiring jackboots to actively threaten and brutalize voters in the
 last resort. NB many subverted elections are preceded by lengthy
terror campaigns (e.g. Nicaragua, El Salvador, Yugoslavia, etc).
Has also utilised subliminal manipulation.


It should go without saying that the following entries are
simplified; only the major "payoff" year is listed, where applicable.
Most attempted overthrows were preceded by lengthy preparations,
vast right wing conspiracies, indeed. NB that this list remains under
 construction; new data will be added in the next installment.


[Date - place (head of targeted state/candidate in subverted
election; political affiliation): outcome (means)]


The * indicates that I'm not clever enough to have found the
absent data yet. Apologies.


"Neutralist" refers to a given regime's desire to avoid taking sides
with either power bloc in the cold war. It should be readily apparent
that such is an unforgivable sin against the foreign policy establishment
in the United States.


"Nationalist" refers to a given regime's desire to nationalize
foreign-owned means of production within its national boundaries.
It should be readily apparent that such is an unforgivable sin against
the foreign policy establishment in the United States.



1893 - Hawaii (Liliuokalani; monarchist): success (OF)
1912 - China (Piyu; monarchist): success (OF)
1918 - Panama (Arias; center-right): success (SE)
1919 - Hungary (Kun; communist): success (CO)
1920 - USSR (Lenin; communist): failure (OF)
1924 - Honduras (Carias; nationalist): success (SE)
1934 - United States (Roosevelt; liberal): failure (CO)
1945 - Japan (Higashikuni; rightist): success (OF)
1946 - Thailand (Pridi; conservative): success (CO)
1946 - Argentina (Peron; military/centrist): failure (SE)
1947 - France (*; communist): success (SE)
1947 - Philippines (*; center-left): success (SE)
1947 - Romania (Gheorghiu-Dej; stalinist): failure (CO)
1948 - Italy (*, communist): success (SE)
1948 - Colombia (Gaitan; populist/leftist): success (SE)
1948 - Peru (Bustamante; left/centrist): success (CO)
1949 - Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): success (CO)
1949 - China (Mao; communist): failure (CO)
1950 - Albania (Hoxha; communist): failure (CO)
1951 - Bolivia (Paz; center/neutralist): success (CO)
1951 - DPRK (Kim; stalinist): failure (OF)
1951 - Poland (Cyrankiewicz; stalinist): failure (CO)
1951 - Thailand (Phibun; conservative): success (CO)
1952 - Egypt (Farouk; monarchist): success (CO)
1952 - Cuba (Prio; reform/populist): success (CO)
1952 - Lebanon (*; left/populist): success: (SE)
1953 - British Guyana (*; left/populist): success (CO)
1953 - Iran (Mossadegh; liberal nationalist): success (CO)
1953 - Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO)
1953 - Philippines (*; center-left): success (SE)
1954 - Guatemala (Arbenz; liberal nationalist): success (OF)
1955 - Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO)
1955 - India (Nehru; neutralist/socialist): failure (CO)
1955 - Argentina (Peron; military/centrist): success (CO)
1955 - China (Zhou; communist): failure (CO)
1955 - Vietnam (Ho; communist): success (SE)
1956 - Hungary (Hegedus; communist): success (CO)
1957 - Egypt (Nasser; military/nationalist): failure (CO)
1957 - Haiti (Sylvain; left/populist): success (CO)
1957 - Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): failure (CO)
1958 - Japan (*; left-center): success (SE)
1958 - Chile (*; leftists): success (SE)
1958 - Iraq (Feisal; monarchist): success (CO)
1958 - Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO)
1958 - Sudan (Sovereignty Council; nationalist): success (CO)
1958 - Lebanon (*; leftist): success (SE)
1958 - Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): failure (CO)
1958 - Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): failure (SE)
1959 - Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO)
1959 - Nepal (*; left-centrist): success (SE)
1959 - Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): failure (CO)
1960 - Ecuador (Ponce; left/populist): success (CO)
1960 - Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO)
1960 - Iraq (Qassem; rightist /militarist): failure (CO)
1960 - S. Korea (Syngman; rightist): success (CO)
1960 - Turkey (Menderes; liberal): success (CO)
1961 - Haiti (Duvalier; rightist/militarist): success (CO)
1961 - Cuba (Castro; communist): failure (CO)
1961 - Congo (Lumumba; leftist/pan-Africanist): success (CO)
1961 - Dominican Republic (Trujillo; rightwing/military): success (CO)
1962 - Brazil (Goulart; liberal/neutralist): failure (SE)
1962 - Dominican Republic (*; left/populist): success (SE)
1962 - Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): failure (CO)
1963 - Dominican Republic (Bosch; social democrat): success (CO)
1963 - Honduras (Montes; left/populist): success (CO)
1963 - Iraq (Qassem; militarist/rightist): success (CO)
1963 - S. Vietnam (Diem; rightist): success (CO)
1963 - Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): failure (CO)
1963 - Guatemala (Ygidoras; rightist/reform): success (CO)
1963 - Ecuador (Velasco; reform militarist): success (CO)
1963 - United States (Kennedy; liberal): success (CO)
1964 - Guyana (Jagan; populist/reformist): success (CO)
1964 - Bolivia (Paz; centrist/neutralist): success (CO)
1964 - Brazil (Goulart; liberal/neutralist): success (CO)
1964 - Chile (Allende; social democrat/marxist): success (SE)
1965 - Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): success (CO)
1966 - Ghana (Nkrumah; leftist/pan-Africanist): success (CO)
1966 - Bolivia (*; leftist): success (SE)
1966 - France (de Gaulle; centrist): failure (CO)
1967 - Greece (Papandreou; social democrat): success (CO)
1968 - Iraq (Arif; rightist): success (CO)
1969 - Panama (Torrijos; military/reform populist): failure (CO)
1969 - Libya (Idris; monarchist): success (CO)
1970 - Bolivia (Ovando; reform nationalist): success (CO)
1970 - Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): success (CO)
1970 - Chile (Allende; social democrat/Marxist): failure (SE)
1971 - Bolivia (Torres; nationalist/neutralist): success (CO)
1971 - Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO)
1971 - Liberia (Tubman; rightist): success (CO)
1971 - Turkey (Demirel; center-right): success (CO)
1971 - Uruguay (Frente Amplio; leftist): success (SE)
1972 - El Salvador (*; leftist): success (SE)
1972 - Australia (Whitlam; liberal/labor): failure (SE)
1973 - Chile (Allende; social democrat/Marxist): success (CO)
1974 - United States (Nixon; centrist): success (CO)
1975 - Australia (Whitlam; liberal/labor): success (CO)
1975 - Congo (Mobutu; military/rightist): failure (CO)
1975 - Bangladesh (Mujib; nationalist): success (CO)
1976 - Jamaica (Manley; social democrat): failure (SE)
1976 - Portugal (JNS; military/leftist): success (SE)
1976 - Nigeria (Mohammed; military/nationalist): success (CO)
1976 - Thailand (*; rightist): success (CO)
1976 - Uruguay (Bordaberry; center-right): success (CO)
1977 - Pakistan (Bhutto: center/nationalist): success (CO)
1978 - Dominican Republic (Balaguer; center): success (SE)
1979 - S. Korea (Park; rightist): success (CO)
1979 - Nicaragua (Sandinistas; leftist): failure (CO)
1980 - Bolivia (Siles; centrist/reform): success (CO)
1980 - Iran (Khomeini; Islamic nationalist): failure (CO)
1980 - Italy (*; leftist): success (SE)
1980 - Liberia (Tolbert; rightist): success (CO)
1980 - Jamaica (Manley; social democrat): success (SE)
1980 - Dominica (Seraphin; leftist): success (SE)
1980 - Turkey (Demirel; center-right): success (CO)
1981 - Seychelles (Renee; socialist): failure (CO)
1981 - Spain (Suarez; rightist/neutralist): failure (CO)
1981 - Panama (Torrijos; military/reform populist); success (CO)
1981 - Zambia (Kaunda; reform nationalist): failure (CO)
1982 - Mauritius (*; center-left): failure (SE)
1982 - Spain (Suarez; rightist/neutralist): success (SE)
1982 - Iran (Khomeini; Islamic nationalist): failure (CO)
1982 - Chad (Oueddei; Islamic nationalist): success (CO)
1983 - Mozambique (Machel; socialist): failure (CO)
1983 - Grenada (Bishop; socialist): success (OF)
1984 - Panama (*; reform/centrist): success (SE)
1984 - Nicaragua (Sandinistas; leftist): failure (SE)
1984 - Surinam (Bouterse; left/reformist/neutralist): success (CO)
1984 - India (Gandhi; nationalist): success (CO)
1986 - Libya (Qaddafi; Islamic nationalist): failure (OF)
1987 - Fiji (Bavrada; liberal): success (CO)
1989 - Panama (Noriega; military/reform populist): success (OF)
1990 - Haiti (Aristide; liberal reform): failure (SE)
1990 - Nicaragua (Ortega; Christian socialist): success (SE)
1991 - Albania (Alia; communist): success (SE)
1991 - Haiti (Aristide; liberal reform): success (CO)
1991 - Iraq (Hussein; military/rightist): failure (OF)
1991 - Bulgaria (BSP; communist): success (SE)
1992 - Afghanistan (Najibullah; communist): success (CO)
1993 - Somalia (Aidid; right/militarist): failure (OF)
1993 - Cambodia (Han Sen/CPP; leftist): failure (SE)
1993 - Burundi (Ndadaye; conservative): success (CO)
1993 - Azerbaijan (Elchibey; reformist): success (CO)
1994 - El Salvador (*; leftist): success (SE)
1994 - Rwanda (Habyarimana; conservative): success (CO)
1995 - Iraq (Hussein; military/rightist): failure (CO)
1994 - Ukraine (Kravchuk; center-left): success (SE)
1996 - Bosnia (Karadzic; centrist): success (CO)
1996 - Russia (Zyuganov; communist): success (SE)
1996 - Congo (Mobutu; military/rightist): success (CO)
1996 - Mongolia (*; center-left): success (SE)
1998 - Congo (Kabila; rightist/military): success (CO)
1998 - United States (Clinton; conservative): failure (CO)
1998 - Indonesia (Suharto; military/rightist): success (CO)
1999 - Yugoslavia (Milosevic; left/nationalist): success (SE)
2000 - United States (Gore; conservative): success (SE)
2000 - Ecuador (NSC; leftist): success: (CO)
2001 - Afghanistan (Omar; rightist/Islamist): success (OF)
2001 - Belarus (Lukashenko; leftist): failure (SE)
2001 - Nicaragua (Ortega; Christian socialist): success (SE)
2001 - Nepal (Birendra; nationalist/monarchist): success (CO)
2002 - Venezuela (Chavez; reform-populist): failure (CO)
2002 - Bolivia (Morales; leftist/MAS): success (SE)
2002 - Brazil (Lula; center-left): failure (SE)


We should keep in mind that the goals of the imperialist in each of
these instances are multiple: acquisition of access to local "markets"
of all varieties; imposition of neoliberal policy; destruction of any potential
alternative to the techno-fascist ruling order; provision of incentive for a
 sprawling parasitical and parastatal medical-intelligence-
military-industrial complex (MIMIC); production of official
"villains" for propaganda purposes; intimidation of non-combatants
(as in the year 1945), and continuing political hegemony of the
transnational elite based in DC.


2. Chronological list of US air warfare campaigns:


Japan (1943-45): conventional; incendiary; nuclear
China (1945-49): conventional; biological
Korea (1950-53): conventional; biological; chemical; incendiary
China (1951-52): conventional; biological; chemical
Guatemala (1954): conventional
Indonesia (1958): conventional
Cuba (1959-61): conventional; (biochemical attacks in other years)
Guatemala (1960): conventional
Vietnam (1961-73): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster
Congo (1964): conventional
Peru (1965): conventional
Laos (1964-73): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster
Guatemala (1967-69): conventional
Cambodia (1969-70): conventional; chemical; biological
Cambodia (1975): conventional
El Salvador (1980-89): conventional
Nicaragua (1980-89): conventional
Grenada (1983): conventional
Lebanon (1983-4): conventional
Syria (1984): conventional
Libya (1986): conventional
Iran (1987): conventional
Panama (1989): conventional; chemical; biological
Iraq (1991-2002): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
Kuwait (1991): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
Somalia (1993): conventional
Bosnia (1993-95): conventional; cluster; DU
Sudan (1998): conventional; biological
Afghanistan (1998): conventional
Yugoslavia (1999): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
Afghanistan (2001-02): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU



3. Chronological list of US client states: [under construction]


1847 - Liberia: to present
1848 - Mexico: to 1911
1893 - Hawaii: to 1959
1899 - Cuba: to 1959
1903 - Dominican Republic: to present
1903 - Honduras: to present
1912 - China: to 1949
1922 - Italy: to 1941
1928 - Portugal: to 1974
1933 - Germany: to 1941
1939 - Spain: to present
1943 - Italy: to present
1944 - Saudi Arabia: to present
1945 - France: to 1965
1945 - Japan: to present
1945 - West Germany: to 1960
1945 - South Korea: to present
1945 - Burma: to 1962
1946 - Thailand: to present
1947 - Greece: to 1964
1947 - Turkey: to present
1948 - Israel: to present
1949 - Taiwan: to present
1950 - Colombia: to present
1952 - Australia: to present
1952 - Lebanon: to present
1952 - New Zealand: to 1985
1953 - Iran: to 1979
1954 - Guatemala: to present
1954 - Pakistan: to present
1959 - Paraguay: to present
1955 - South Vietnam: to 1975
1957 - Haiti: to present
1957 - Jordan: to present
1960 - Congo/Zaire: to present
1963 - Iraq: to 1990
1964 - Bolivia: to present
1964 - Brazil: to present
1965 - Greece: to present
1965 - Peru: to present
1966 - Central African Republic: to present
1969 - Oman: to present
1970 - Egypt: to present
1970 - Cambodia: to 1979
1970 - Uruguay: to present
1975 - Morocco: to present
1976 - Portugal: to present
1978 - Kenya: to present
1978 - S. Africa: to 1990
1979 - Yemen: to present
1979 - Somalia: to 1991
1982 - Chad: to present
1982 - Mexico: to present
1984 - Brunei: to present
1988 - Burma: to present
1992 - Angola: to 2002
1993 - Azerbaijan: to present
1993 - Eritrea: to present
1993 - Nigeria: to present
1994 - Ukraine: to present
1995 - Ethiopia: to present
2000 - Kyrgyzstan: to present
2001 - Afghanistan: to present

[all of Latin America (sans Mexico, Venezuela, Costa Rica,
 Cuba 1964-1990); a legion of others ]



4. Chronological list of states held in the manacles of debt-leverage imperialism:


N.B. these states are held in the thralldom of "odious debt" imposed
upon them by (typically) quasi-fascistic regimes who 1) often enough
were empowered via United States state terrorism and 2) accepted
the terms of United States dominated Bretton Woods restructuring programs.


Many countries found themselves in dire monetary and fiscal straits in the early
1980s - after the Nixon shocks, the various oil embargoes, and the Volcker
interest rate hikes. At this time of the debt crisis, the IMF and World Bank
became "lenders of last resort" for regimes unable to meet balance of
payments obligations to imperialist-controlled banks - but such lending
comes with a cost: dismantle any and all policies that don't adhere to
 the mystical mantras of neoliberalism (ie such policies as protectionism,
capital regulation, state industry, wage control, labor and environmental
regulation, resistance to currency devaluation, autochthonous/non-export
production, etc had to go); such is the nature of the structural adjustment
program (SAP).


Note further that these policies were the Reaganites' answer to
the "Crisis of Democracy" (as defined by the geniuses in the
Trilateral Commission) that was occurring on a global scale and
to the relative loss of US geopolitical power in the late 1970s.
In order to disrupt the G-77, UNCTAD, and other international
movements modeled on the success of OPEC, the debt crisis and
its neoliberal response were engineered for the sake of ushering in
a new world order of managed friggin' chaos. It is good to recall that
a number of countries that have refused SAP have been attacked
(e.g., Serbia) and/or destabilized (e.g., Belarus). It is also prudent
to realize that many an "ethnic," "religious," or otherwise vaguely
described "civil" war has been caused directly by SAP (e.g., Somalia, Yugoslavia).


Moreover note that the meaning of "debt crisis" is that
subjugated nations that were unable to meet balance of
payments obligations to imperialist-controlled banks threatened
the survival of such banks, and thus this privately held debt was
transferred to public institutions, thereby socializing risk while
insuring the sanctity of corporate profit. (I.e., "crisis" does not
 here refer to those horrors being inflicted on subjugated peoples.)


[Year of initial SAP implementation - nations]


1980 - Jamaica

1981 - Brazil; Mauritius; Uganda

1982 - Mexico; Ecuador; Bangladesh; Central African Republic;
Argentina; Tanzania

1983 - Chile; Ghana; Kenya; Malawi; Niger; Somalia

1984 - Congo/Zaire; Mauritania; Senegal

1985 - Bolivia; Botswana; Costa Rica; Gambia; Guinea; Sao Tome

1986 - Madagascar; Nigeria; Philippines; Sierra Leone; Tunisia

1987 - Zambia; Algeria; Guinea-Bissau; Mozambique; Sudan; Yugoslavia

1988 - Equatorial Guinea; Guyana; Hungary; Pakistan; Sri Lanka

1989 - Cameroon; El Salvador; Jordan; Lesotho; Trinidad; Venezuela; Congo (RC); Togo

1990 - Colombia; Czech Republic; Nicaragua; Peru; Rwanda

1991 - Angola; Burkina Faso; Cote d'Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; India; Romania; Zimbabwe

1992 - Latvia; Reunion; Ukraine; Belarus; Azerbaijan; Georgia;
 Armenia; Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Moldova

1993 - Benin; Gabon; Russia; S. Africa; Surinam

1994 - Eritrea; Cambodia; Haiti; Mali

1995 - Seychelles; Swaziland; Tajikistan

1996 - Bosnia-Herzegovina; Comoros; Uruguay

1997 - Bulgaria; Djibouti; Indonesia

1998 - Mongolia; Paraguay; S. Korea; Thailand; Yemen

1999 - Kosovo


5. Rough chronological list of foreign territories "hosting" US
military installations. The range of years for each group attempts
to indicate when the country in question first began its role as
 "host" for US military facilities. NB I'm still corroborating
 these. [under construction]


"Mahan Doctrine" group (1898-1904): Guam; Puerto Rico;
Philippines; Cuba; Hawaii, Panama


"Monroe Doctrine-Crisis of Capital" group (1905-1935): Antarctica;
Azores; Galapagos; Haiti; Liberia; Nicaragua; Samoa


"Welt Krieg" group (1939-1953): Antigua; Australia; Bahamas; Belgium;
 Bermuda; British Guiana; Burma; Denmark; France; Germany; Greece;
 Greenland; Iceland; Indonesia; Iran; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Johnston Atoll;
Korea; Marshall Islands; Midway Islands; Morocco; Netherlands; Newfoundland;
New Zealand; Okinawa; Portugal; Spain; St. Lucia; Taiwan; Thailand;
Trinidad; Turkey; United Kingdom; Vietnam


"Post-Monroe Doctrine-War on Drugs/Depopulation" group (1954-2002):
Aruba, Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; DRC; Ecuador;
El Salvador; Ghana; Guatemala; Honduras; Ivory Coast; Nigeria; Peru; Rwanda; Senegal


"Carter Doctrine" group (1978-1981): Bahrain; Diego Garcia;
Egypt; Israel; Kenya; Oman; Somalia


"New World Order-Persian Gulf" group (1990-1991): Kuwait; Qatar; Saudi Arabia;
UAE; Yemen


"New World Order-Balkans" group (1991-2001): Albania; Bosnia; Croatia; Hungary;
Kosovo; Macedonia


"Afghanistan War/Caspian Basin" group (2000-2002): Afghanistan;
Azerbaijan; Georgia; India; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Pakistan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan



6. Chronological list of US murder toll: [under construction]


The murder toll has been achieved by either direct violence
(e.g. the firebombing and nuking of Japan or the firebombing of Dresden)
or indirect/proxy "low intensity conflict" (e.g. Rwanda in the 90s or
Nicaragua in the 80s). (I have not here accounted for the deaths attributable to SAP.)
Some extremely conservative estimates


Native Americans (1776-2002): 4M
West Africans (1776-1865): 4M
Philippines (1898-1904): 600K
Germany (1945): 200K
Japan (1945): 900K
China (1945-60): 200K
Greece (1947-49): 100K
Korea (1951-53): 2M
Guatemala (1954-2002): 300K
Vietnam (1960-75): 2M
Laos (1965-73): 500K
Cambodia (1969-75): 1M
Indonesia (1965): 500K
Colombia (1966-2002): 500K
Oman (1970): 10K
Bangladesh (1971): 2M
Uganda (1971-1979): 200K
Chile (1973-1990): 20K
East Timor (1975): 200K
Angola (1975-2002): 1.5M
Argentina (1976-1979): 30K
Afghanistan (1978-2002): 1M
El Salvador (1980-95): 100K
Nicaragua (1980-90): 100K
Mozambique (1981-1988): 1M
Turkey (1984-2002): 50K
Rwanda (1990-1996): 1M
Iraq (1991-2002): 1M
Somalia (1991-1994): 300K
Yugoslavia (1991-2002): 300K
Liberia (1992-2002): 150K
Burundi (1993-1999): 200K
Sudan (1998): 100K
Congo (1998-2002): 3M


We should also take note that the United States bears more
than superficial responsibility for the Nazi Holocaust: e.g., the
turning away of Jewish, Romani, and other refugees; funding the
concentration camp system; underwriting the Third Reich's military;
delay in opening a western front; policies of appeasement before the war;
siding with the fascists during the Spanish Civil War; turning down Stalin's
offer to attack Germany jointly in 1938; providing theoretical inspiration for
 lebensraum, final solutions, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, etc;
rebuilding Germany after the war with the fascist infrastructure still
intact; saving war criminals; general ideological support; and so forth.




7. Alphabetical list of rightwing dictators, reactionary movements,
and other reprehensible figures empowered/materially supported by
the US: [under construction] It seems as though the number one
criterion for getting a job as the head of a client state is a willingness
to butcher leftists. Indeed, the use of unsavory rightists by the United
States began neither with the anti-Castro Cuban eemigree community,
nor with the Afghan mujaheddin alumni, oh Nelly no!


[the dates provided are sloppily done, I concede. At times,
they are just the general duration of the given regime (e.g., Selassie).
Most others are the duration of US support while the regime
lasted (e.g., Hitler, Saddam Hussein, etc.)]


Abacha, Sani (Nigeria: 1993-2000)
Afwerki, Isaias (Eritrea: 1993-2002)
Amin, Idi (Uganda: 1971-1979)
Arevalo, Marco (Guatemala: 1985-1991)
Bakr, Ahmad (Iraq: 1968-1979)
Banzer Suarez, Hugo (Bolivia: 1971-1978)
Bao Dai (Vietnam: 1949-1955)
Barak, Ehud (Israel: 1999-2001)
Barre, Siad (Somalia: 1979-1991)
Batista, Fulgencio (Cuba: 1940-44/1952-1959)
Begin, Menachem (Israel: 1977-1983)
Ben-Gurion, David (Israel: 1948-1953, 1955-1963)
Betancourt Bello, Rumulo (Venezuela: 1959-1964)
Bokassa, Jean-Bedel (Central African Republic: 1966-1976)
Bolkiah, Sir Hassanal (Brunei: 1984-2002)
Botha, P.W. (South Africa: 1978-1989)
Branco, Humberto (Brazil: 1964-1966)
Carmona, Pedro (Venezuela: 2002)
Cedras, Raoul (Haiti: 1991)
Chamoun, Camille (Lebanon: 1952-1958)
Chiang Kai-shek (China: 1928-1949/Taiwan: 1949-1975)
Christiani, Alfredo (El Salvador: 1989-1994)
Chun Doo Hwan (S. Korea: 1980-1988)
Cordova, Roberto (Honduras: 1981-1985)
Diaz, Porfirio (Mexico: 1876-1911)
Diem, Ngo Dinh (S. Vietnam: 1955-1963)
Doe, Samuel (Liberia: 1980-90)
Duvalier, Francois (Haiti: 1957-1971) Duvalier, Jean Claude (Haiti: 1971-1986)
Eshkol, Levi (Israel: 1963-1969)
Fahd bin'Abdul-'Aziz (Saudi Arabia: 1969-2002)
Feisal, King (Iraq: 1939-1958)
Franco, Francisco (Spain: 1937-1975)
Fujimori, Alberto (Peru: 1990-2002)
Habre, Hissen (Chad: 1982-1990);
Hassan II (Morocco: 1961-1999)
Hitler, Adolf (Germany: 1933-1939)
Hussein, King (Jordan: 1952-1999)
Hussein, Saddam (Iraq: 1979-1990)
Kabila, Laurent (CDR: 1997-1998)
Karzai, Hamid (Afghanistan: 2001-2002)
Khan, Ayub (Pakistan: 1958-1969)
Koirala, B. (Nepal: 1959-1960)
Lon Nol (Cambodia: 1970-1975)
Marcos, Ferdinand (Philippines: 1965-1986)
Martinez, Maximiliano (El Salvador: 1931-1944)
Meir, Golda (Israel: 1969-1974)
Meles Zenawi (Ethiopia: 1995-2002)
Mobutu Sese Seko (Zaire: 1965-1997)
Moi, Daniel (Kenya: 1978-2002)
Montt, Efrain (Guatemala: 1982-1983)
Mubarak, Hosni (Egypt: 1981-2002)
Museveni, Yoweri (Uganda: 1986-2002)
Musharaf, Pervez (Pakistan: 1999-2002)
Mussolini, Benito (Italy: 1922-1939)
Netanyahu, Benjamin (Israel: 1996-1999)
Noriega, Manuel (Panama: 1983-1989)
Odria, Manuel (Peru: 1948-1956)
Omar, Mohamed (Afghanistan: 1996-2001)
Ozal, Turgut (Turkey: 1989-1993)
Pahlevi , Rezi (Iran: 1953-1979)
Papadopoulos, George (Greece: 1967-1973)
Park Chung Hee (S. Korea: 1960-1979)
Pastrana, Andres (Colombia: 1998-2002)
Peres, Shimon (Israel: 1977, 1984-1986, 1995-1996)
Perez Jimenez, Marcos (Venezuela: 1952-58)
Pinilla, Gustavo (Colombia: 1953-1957)
Pinochet, Augusto (Chile: 1973-1990)
Pol Pot (Cambodia: 1975-1998)
al-Qaddafi, Muammar (Libya: 1969-1971)
Rabin, Yitzhak (Israel: 1974-1977, 1992-1995)
Rabuka, Sitiveni (Fiji: 1987, 1992-1999)
Al Sadat, Anwar (Egypt: 1970-1981)
Selassie, Halie (Ethiopia: 1941-1974)
Salazar, Antonio (Portugal: 1932-1968)
Saud, Abdul Aziz (Saudi Arabia: 1944-1969)
Seaga, Edward (Jamaica: 1980-1989)
Shamir, Yitzhak (Israel: 1983-1984; 1986-1992)
Sharett, Moshe (Israel: 1953-1955)
Sharon, Ariel (Israel: 2001-2002)
Smith, Ian (Rhodesia: 1965-1979)
Somoza Sr., Anastasio (Nicaragua: 1936-1956)
Somoza Jr., Anastasio (Nicaragua: 1963-1979)
Stroessner, Alfredo (Paraguay: 1954-1989)
Suharto, General (Indonesia: 1966-1999)
Syngman Rhee (S. Korea: 1948-1960)
Tolbert, William (Liberia: 1971-1980)
Trujillo, Rafael (Dominican Republic: 1930-1960)
Tubman, William (Liberia: 1944-1971)
Uribe, Alvaro (Colombia: 2002)
Videla, Jorge (Argentina: 1976-1981)
Yeltsin, Boris (Russia: 1991-1999)
Zaim, Hosni (Syria: 1949)
Zia Ul-Haq, Mohammed (Pakistan: 1977-1988)


other nasty nasties:


RPF (contra French client Rwanda);
SPLA contra Islamist Sudan, (a French client);
clients in Cameroon, Congo, Ivory Coast, Togo and Benin, after
subverted elections (contra French proxies);
AFDL (Kabila);
Dalai Lama (Tibet);
bin Laden's al Qaida;
Savimbi's UNITA


Nazi war criminals and collaborators knowingly rescued in the years
after WW2 by US intelligence for use as covert assets against the USSR:


R. Gehlen; O. Skorzeny; A. Brunner; O. von Bolschwing; W. von Braun; M. Lebed;
A. Vlasov; I. Docheff; K. Dragonovich; I. Bogolepov; C. Bolydreff; A. Berzins; H. Herwarth;
K. Barbie; I. Demjanjuk; W. Dornberger; V. Hazners; B. Maikovskis; E. Laipenieks; N. Nazarenko;
L. Pasztor; R. Ostrowsky; L. Kairys; P. Shandruk; T. Soobzokov;
S. Stankievich; and literally thousands of others.



8. List of "international" bodies designed/employed/perverted by the
United States: [under construction]


UN/ OECD/ WHO

G8/IMF/WB/WTO/NAFTA/MAI/FTAA/Colombo Plan

NATO/SEATO/CTO/ANZUS/OAS



9. Chronological list of interventions by the United States, with the
purpose of opposing (or aiding opposition to) popular resistance
movements - whether by means of overt force (OF) or covert operation (CO):


[Date - place (targeted movement): outcome (means)]


1776-1865 - United States (numerous slave rebellions): success (OF)
1782-1787 - United States (Wyoming Valley): success (OF)
1786-1787 - United States (Shay's Rebellion): success (OF)
1790-1795 - United States (Ohio Valley tribes): success (OF)
1794-1794 - United States (Whiskey Rebellion): success (OF)
1798-1800 - United States (Alien & Sedition trials): success (CO)
1799-1799 - United States (Fries' Rebellion): success (OF)
1805-1806 - United States (Boston union "conspiracy"): success (CO)
1806-1807 - United States (Burr's Insurrection): success (OF)
1810-1821 - Spanish Florida (Africans, Natives, etc): success (OF)
1811-1811 - United States (Tecumseh's Confederacy): success (albeit a
permanently cursed "success") (OF)
1813-1814 - United States (Creeks): success (OF)
1822-1822 - United States (Vesey's Rebellion): success (CO)
1823-1824 - United States (Arikara): success (OF)
1826-1827 - United States (Philadelphia union "conspiracy"): success (CO)
1827-1827 - United States (Fever River & Winnebago): success (OF)
1831-1831 - United States (Turner's rebellion): success (OF)
1831-1831 - United States (Sac & Fox): success (OF)
1832-1832 - United States (Black Hawks): success (OF)
1833-1834 - Argentina (rebellion): success (OF)
1835-1835 - United States (Murrel's Uprising): success (CO)
1835-1836 - Peru (rebellion): success (OF)
1835-1842 - United States (Seminoles): success (OF)
1836-1837 - United States (Sabine, Osage): success (OF)
1836-1844 - Mexico (anti-Texans, Natives, etc): success (OF)
1837-1838 - United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1838-1839 - United States (Mormons): success (OF)
1842-1842 - United States (Dorr's Rebellion): success (OF)
1847-1855 - United States (Cayuse): success (OF)
1850-1851 - United States (Mariposa tribes): success (OF)
1851-1859 - United States (Washington tribes): success (OF)
1852-1853 - Argentina (rebellion in Buenos Aires): success (OF
1854-1856 - China (rebellion): success (OF)
1855-1856 - United States (Sioux): success (OF)
1855-1858 - United States (Seminoles): success (OF)
1855-1858 - Nicaragua (Walker's invasion): success (OF)
1855-1860 - United States ("Bleeding Kansas"): success (OF)
1857-1857 - United States (Cheyenne): success (OF)
1857-1858 - United States (Mormons): success (OF)
1858-1858 - Uruguay (rebellion in Montevideo): success (OF)
1858-1859 - United States (Comanche): success (OF)
1859-1859 - United States (Brownists at Harper's Ferry): success (OF)
1860-1860 - Angola (rebellion in Kissembo): success (OF)
1860-1861 - Colombia (rebellion): success (OF)
1861-1865 - United States (confederate rebellion): success (OF)
1861-1865 - United States (Navajo): success (OF)
1861-1886 - United States (Apache): success (OF)
1862-1864 - United States (Sioux): success (OF)
1863-1863 - United States (draft riots): success (OF)
1863-1864 - United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1864-1864 - United States (Sand Hill Massacre): success (OF)
1865-1865 - Panama (rebellion): success (OF)
1865-1867 - United States (Sioux): success (OF)
1867-1867 - Formosa (rebellion): success (OF)
1867-1875 - United States (Comanche): success (OF)
1868-1868 - Japan (rebellion): success (OF)]
1868-1868 - United States (Washita/South Plains tribes): success (OF)
1868-1868 - Uruguay (rebellion): success (OF)
1871-1871 - Korea (rebellion): success (OF)
1872-1873 - United States (Modocs): success (OF)
1874-1875 - United States (Red River War): success (OF)
1874-1874 - United States (Kiowa): success (OF)
1876-1877 - United States (Sioux/Cheyenne): success (OF)
1877-1877 - United States (St Louis general strike, others): success (OF)
1877-1877 - United States (Nez Perce): success (OF)
1878-1878 - United States (Idaho tribes): success (OF)
1878-1879 - United States (Cheyenne): success (OF)
1879-1880 - United States (Ute): success (OF)
1885-1885 - United States (New York textile strikes): failure (OF)
1886-1886 - United States (massive strikes, Haymarket): success (OF)
1888-1888 - Korea (rebellion): success (OF)
1888-1893 - Hawaii (rebellion contra Dole): success (OF)
1888-1889 - Samoa (rebellion): success (OF)
1890-1891 - United States (Pine Ridge, Wounded Knee): success (OF)
1891-1891 - Haiti (Navassa uprising): success (OF)
1891-1892 - Chile (rebellion): success (OF)
1892-1892 - United States (Idaho miners): success (OF)
1893-1894 - United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1894-1894 - Nicaragua (Bluefields unrest): success (OF)
1894-1894 - United States (Chicago rail/Pullman strikes): success (OF)
1894-1895 - Brazil (rebellion): success (OF)
1894-1896 - Korea (post Sino-Japanese war rebellion): success (OF)
1896-1899 - Nicaragua (rebellions): success (OF)
1898-1900 - United States (Chippewa at Leech Lake): success (OF)
1898-1902 - Philippines (nationalist resistance): success (OF)
1899-1899 - Samoa (Mataafa): success (OF)
1899-1901 - United States (Idaho miners): success (OF)
1900-1941 - China (Boxers, communists, etc): success (OF)
1901-1901 - United States (Creek uprising): success (OF)
1901-1901 - United States (Steel strikes): failure (OF)
1901-1902 - Colombia (rebellions): success (OF)
1901-1913 - Philippines (Moslem Moro rebellion): success (OF)
1903-1903 - Honduras (rebellion): success (OF)
1903-1904 - Dominican Republic (rebellion): success (OF)
1904-1909 - United States (Kentucky tobacco farmers): success (OF)
1906-1909 - Cuba (rebellion): success (OF)
1907-1911 - Honduras (leftists, Bonilla): success (OF)
1909-1911 - United States (NY/Triangle textile strikes): failure (OF)
1911-1912 - China (rebellions): success (OF)
1912-1925 - Nicaragua (leftists): success (OF)
1913-1919 - Mexico (various rebellions, Villa): failure (OF)
1914-1914 - United States (Ludlow Massacre): success (OF)
1914-1924 - Dominican Republic (various factions): success (OF)
1915-1934 - Haiti (Sam, etc): success (OF)
1916-1917 - United States (Arizona miners strike): success (OF)
1917-1918 - United States (IWW): success (CO)
1917-1919 - United States (Espionage Act trials): success (CO)
1917-1922 - Cuba (rebellions): success (OF)
1918-1920 - Panama (strikes, election protests, etc): success (OF)
1919-1919 - Honduras (rebellion): success (OF)
1919-1920 - United States (Palmer Raids): success (CO)
1919-1920 - Costa Rica (Tinoco, etc): success (CO)
1919-1920 - United States (Great Steel Strike, others): success (OF)
1920-1921 - United States (West Virginian miners): success (OF)
1920-1928 - United States (prison rebellions): success (OF)
1920-1920 - Guatemala (Unionists): success (OF)
1922-1922 - Turkey (Nationalists): success (OF)
1922-1923 - United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1924-1925 - Honduras (rebellions): success (OF)
1925-1925 - Panama (general strike): success (OF)
1926-1933 - Nicaragua (Sandino, others): success (OF)
1931-1932 - El Salvador (Marti): success (OF)
1932-1932 - United States (DC Bonus Strikers): success (OF)
1933-1933 - Cuba (rebellion): success (OF)
1935-1935 - Philippines (Sakdal Uprising): success (OF)
1938-1957 - United States (leftists: HUAC, McCarthyism): success (CO)
1943-1946 - United States (unprecedented strikes): success (OF)
1944-1951 - Greece (EAM/ELAS/KKE): success (CO)
1945-1949 - China (maoism): failure (OF)
1945-1954 - Vietnam (Viet Minh): failure (CO)
1946-1947 - S. Korea (mass resistance to US military rule): success (OF)
1947-1950 - Turkey (TKP): success (CO)
1948-1948 - S. Korea (democratic resistance): success (OF)
1948-1954 - Philippines (Huks): success (CO)
1950-1951 - United States (Puerto Rican independence): success (OF)
1950-1953 - United States (many prison rebellions): success (OF)
1952-1975 - Japan (general anti-US protests): success (OF)
1952-1957 - Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF)
1953-1963 - Syria (ASRP/Baathists): failure (CO)
1954-1962 - Algeria (FLN): failure (CO)
1956-1971 - United States (Cointelpro-CPUSA): success (CO)
1956-1975 - South Vietnam (NLF): failure (OF)
1957-1959 - Lebanon (leftists): success (OF)
1957-1958 - Jordan (leftists/anti-monarchists): success (OF)
1959-1960 - Haiti (rebels contra Duvalier): success (OF)
1960-1971 - United States (Cointelpro-Puertorriquenos): success (CO)
1960-1966 - Peru (leftist rebels/PCP): success (CO)
1960-1963 - Venezuela (FALN; leftist): success (CO)
1962-1969 - United States (Cointelpro-SWP): success (CO)
1963-1965 - El Salvador (various rebels): success (CO)
1964-1964 - Panama (Canal activists): success (OF)
1965-1968 - United States (mass urban race riots): failure (OF)
1965-1966 - Dominican Republic (Bosch supporters): success (OF)
1965-1966 - Indonesia (PKI): success (CO)
1965-2000 - East Timor (independence movement): failure (CO)
1966-1973 - United States (massive antiwar protest): failure (OF)
1966-2002 - Colombia (FARC/ELN): success (CO)
1966-1988 - Namibia (SWAPO): failure (CO)
1966-1967 - Guatemala (leftists): success (CO)
1967-1971 - United States (Cointelpro-SCLC, BPP, CORE, etc): failure (CO)
1967-1967 - United States (Detroit black workers): success (OF)
1967-1971 - Uruguay (Tupamaros): success (CO)
1967-1968 - United States (San Quentin prison rebellions): success (OF)
1967-1969 - Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF)
1968-1969 - United States (MLK assassination riots): success (OF)
1968-1971 - United States (Cointelpro-SDS): success (CO)
1969-1970 - United States (IAT at Alcatraz): success (OF)
1969-1970 - Oman (Dhufar Rebellion): success (CO)
1969-2002 - Philippines (maoism): success (CO)
1970-1970 - United States (several prison rebellions): success (OF)
1970-1970 - United States (campus uprisings: KSU, etc): success (OF)
1970-1970 - Jordan (Palestinian resistance): success (CO)
1970-1972 - Bangladesh (independence movement): failure (CO)
1970-1972 - Trinidad (rebellions): success (OF)
1971-1971 - United States (post-Jackson murder prison riots): success (OF)
1972-1973 - Nicaragua (Sandinistas): success (OF)
1973-1973 - United States (Lakota at Wounded Knee): success (OF)
1973-1976 - United States (Cointelpro-AIM): success (CO)
1974-2002 - Israel (PLO): success (CO)
1974-2002 - Turkey (PKK): success (CO)
1977-1978 - United States (coal miners): failure (OF)
1980-2002 - Peru (MRTA/Shining Path): success (CO)
1981-1992 - El Salvador (FMLN, etc): success (CO)
1981-1990 - Honduras (PCH, FPR, etc): success (CO)
1981-1981 - United States (air controllers strike): success (OF)
1982-1983 - Morocco (MOL): success (CO)
1982-1984 - Lebanon (leftist & Moslem resistance): failure (OF)
1986-1990 - Bolivia (peasants): success (OF)
1989-1989 - St. Croix (Black rebellion): success (OF)
1992-1992 - United States (LA uprising): success (OF)
1994-2002 - Mexico (EZLN/Zapatistas): success (CO)
1995-1998 - Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF)
1996-2002 - Nepal (CPN): success (CO)



10. US as "isolationist" pre-1941? hahahahaha! DoS-confessed
conflicts & interventions up to WW2 (NB other unconfessed
exist - tracking them is the tricky part).


Contra major European powers


France: 1798-1800, 1806-10

Germany: 1917-18, 1941-45

Great Britain: 1775-1783, 1812-1815

Spain [and colonies]: 1806-10, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1816-18, 1898

USSR: 1918-22


Contra minor powers, colonies, marginal states, non-European major powers

Abyssina: 1903-4
"Africa" [west coast]: 1820-23, 1843 [allegedly contra "slave trade"]
Amelia Is.: 1812, 1817
Algeria/Algiers: 1815 [the 2nd Barbary War]
Angola: 1860
Argentina: 1833, 1852-3, 1890
"Bering Sea": 1891 [contra alleged "seal poaching" LOL]
Brazil: 1894
"Caribbean": 1814-25 [contra alleged "piracy"]
Chile: 1891
China: 1843, 1854-6, 1859, 1866, 1894-5, 1898-9, 1900, 1911, 1912-41
Colombia: 1868, 1873, 1895, 1902
Costa Rica: 1921
Cuba: 1822-25, 1906-9, 1912, 1917-22, 1933
Dominican Republic: 1799, 1903-4, 1914
Egypt: 1882
Falklands: 1831-2
Fiji: 1840, 1855, 1858 [the most curious in the bunch, IMHO]
Formosa: 1867
Greece: 1827
Greenland: 1941 ["defense" agreement]
Guatemala: 1920
Haiti: 1888, 1891, 1914, 1915-34
Hawaii: 1870, 1874, 1893
Honduras: 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924-5
Iceland: 1941 ["defense" agreement]
Italy: 1941-43
Japan: 1853-4, 1863, 1868, 1941-45
Johanna Is.: 1851
Kingsmills Is.: 1841
Korea: 1871, 1888, 1889, 1894-6, 1904-5
Libya/Tripoli: 1801-1805, 1815 [the 1st and 3rd Barbary Wars]
Marquesa Is.: 1813-4
Mexico: 1806, 1836, 1842, 1844, 1846-8, 1859, 1866, 1870, 1873, 1876, 1913-9
Morocco: 1904
Nicaragua: 1853, 1854, 1857, 1869, 1894, 1896, 1898-9, 1910, 1912-25, 1926-33
Panama: [Colo] 1856, 1860, 1865, 1885, 1901, [indep] 1903-14, 1918-21, 1925
Paraguay: 1859
Peru: 1835-6
Philippines: 1899-1901
Puerto Rico: 1824, 1899
Samoa: 1841, 1888-9, 1899
Smyrna: 1849
Sumatra: 1832, 1838-9
Surinam: 1941
Turkey: 1851, 1858-9, 1912, 1917-8, 1919, 1922
Uruguay: 1855, 1858, 1868
Yugoslavia: 1919


Scanning the official public acknowledgment list here, we clearly
see that the US had extreme paranoia about China, Mexico,
Nicaragua, and Panama: Open Doors, "uncooperative" neighbors,
and two potential canal zones. Also, check the rationale in the
official Defense Dept. record for each of the above conflict dates.
Many, many times, we have the "to protect US interests [or "nationals"]
during a crisis" as the proposed justification. Caveat lector.



11. Noteworthy Covert Operations conducted by the United States.
We should keep in mind that the dates given are the confessed dates
of operation. In no way does this account for programs that continued to
run after they were officially terminated, nor does it reckon with the
same practices under different names - or no names at all. It should
go without saying that this isn't a complete listing.


Overcast (1945-46): OSS rescuing Nazi military scientists for US use
Crowcass: 1945-48): locating thousands of Nazis for later use
Paperclip (1946-1954): continuation and expansion of Overcast
Mockingbird (1947-2002): CIA control of mass media
Bloodstone (1948-50): infiltrating fascists into the USSR
Gladio (1949-90): terrorist actions to discredit the left; assassination, etc.
Ajax (1950-1953): supporting the Shah of Iran and overthrowing Mossadegh
MK-Ultra (1953-1963): CIA experiments with LSD, etc on non-volunteers
Cointelpro (1956-71): FBI destabilization of CP, AIM, SDS, civil rights, etc.
Celeste (1960-61): CIA assassination of UN secretary-general Dag Hammarskjold
Mongoose (1961-63): assassinating Castro
Northwoods (1962-2002): DoD prepares faked ‚?ķterror attacks‚?ý qua casus belli
SHAD (1962-1973): DoD performs biochemical weaponry tests on US citizens
Merrimac (1967-68): CIA surveillance of DC
Phoenix (1967-1971): mass agitprop and assassination program in Vietnam
Resistance (1967-68): CIA spying on US student movements
Chaos (1968-1974): CIA domestic espionage on students, activists, etc
Garden Plot (1968-2002): DoD plans for mass repression/concentration camps
Tailwind (1970): killing US defectors in Vietnam with sarin gas
Grillflame (1971-1991): CIA "ESP troopers" i.e. over-horizon radar
Echelon (1972-2002): NSA electronic surveillance of all communication
Watch Tower (1974-1976): CIA builds an ‚?ķair corridor‚?ý for narcotics traffic in Colombia
Condor (1975-1977): Security arrangement in S. America to kill leftists
George Orwell (1978-1990): CIA surveillance of US politicians, etc, to protect narcotics traffic
Cyclone (1979-2002): funding violent Islamic fundamentalist groups
Promis (1981-2002): CIA, etc surveillance of financial transactions
JCET (1991-2002): "foreign internal defense" training programs
Roots (1993-1999): CIA sows fascistic propaganda in Yugoslavia
Storm (1995): ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Krajina
Carnivore (1999-2002): FBI surveillance of www posts, listservs, etc
Magic Lantern (2001-2002): FBI surveillance of PC keystrokes.
Tips (2002-): DoJ civilian informants and denunciations



12. Prominent Front Organizations used to advance US imperialist interests:


Adolph Coors Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
AFL-CIO: CIA controlled labor organization
African American Institute: CIA front group
American Council for International Commission of Jurists: CIA front
American Enterprise Foundation: rightist think-tank
American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees: CIA front
American Foreign Policy Council: rightist think-tank
American Friends of the Middle East: CIA front group
American Newspaper Guild: CIA front group
American Society of African Culture: CIA front group
Brookings Institution: rightist think-tank
CANF: anti-Castro lobbyist
Cato Institute: rightist think-tank
Carnegie Endowment: rightist think-tank
Center for Security Policy: rightist think-tank
Center for Strategic and International Studies: rightist think-tank
Competitive Enterprise Institute: rightist think-tank
Ethics and Public Policy Center: rightist think-tank
Ford Foundation: CIA front group
Freedom Forum: rightist think-tank
Fund for International Social and Economic Education: CIA front group
Heritage Foundation: rightist think-tank
Hoover Institution: rightist think-tank
Hudson Institute: rightist think-tank
Institute for Historical Review: neo-fascist lobbyist; Holocaust denier
Institute for International Economics: rightist think-tank
Institute for International Labor Research: CIA front group
International Development Foundation: CIA front group
International Institute for Strategic Studies: rightist think-tank
John Birch Society: virulent anti-communist publicist
John M. Olin Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Koch Family Foundations: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Liberty Lobby: neo-fascist agitprop
Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Manhattan Institute: rightist think-tank
National Education Association: CIA front group
National Endowment for Democracy: CIA front group
National Student Association: CIA front group
Progress and Freedom Foundation: rightist think-tank
Progressive Policy Institute: rightist think-tank
RAND Corporation: rightist think-tank
Reason Foundation: rightist think-tank
Scaife Family Foundations: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Smith Richardson Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Soros Foundation: CIA front group
USAID: official humanitarian front used to control food politics
USIA: primary disseminator of official "white propaganda"
Voice of America: CIA-controlled radio



13. "Low intensity wars" conducted by the United States and its
proxies ("medium intensity warfare" = direct and usually acknowledged
involvement of US military apparatus; "high intensity warfare" =
Dr. Strangelove stuff: "nuclear combat toe-to-toe with the Russkies," &c).


The primary goal of low intensity conflict is to use proxies,
intelligence, and special forces to destabilize a region and its official
government. The purpose of destabilization is to achieve 1) access to
resources amidst the chaos, 2) delegitimation of an "enemy"
political/economic system, 3) influence over specific local groups,
and 4) depopulation of regions inhabited by "untermenschen."


All leftists should learn about low intensity warfare; it is by far
and away >one of the most disgusting and useful tools in the
imperialist repertoire. Don't let the words "low intensity" trick you:
rivers are dammed with corpses and the fields are sown with the
blood of the targeted nation.


1950s: Poland; Ukraine; Russia, China; Thailand; Burma

1960s: Congo; Vietnam; Laos; Cambodia; Thailand; Burma

1970s: Congo; Vietnam; Laos; Cambodia

1980s: Congo; Cambodia; Nicaragua; Afghanistan; Mozambique; Angola;
Ethiopia; Yemen; Western Sahara

1990s: Congo; Cambodia; Afghanistan; Yugoslavia; Nigeria; Sierra Leone;
Guinea-Bissau; Colombia; Liberia; Sudan; Central African Republic; Equatorial Guinea



14. Proxy Wars fought by the United States, which typically involves
 the use of clients, dupes, mercenaries, unofficial "volunteers,"
and official, though disavowable, special forces. [under construction]


contra Soviet Union: stock-in-trade Cold War superpower jousting

contra France: after the Soviet Union ended all activities in Africa,
the US began its bid to force French proxies out of North Africa.








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